Thursday, August 27, 2020
Question: Talk about the Development and Implementation of Account Software. Answer: Presentation ERS or Enterprise Resource arranging is essentially a business procedure the executives programming that offers various incorporated applications for an association with the goal that it can viably deal with its everyday business exercises and can even computerize various back office capacities. As an association considers extension, at that point there is a concurrent development in its outstanding task at hand. At this limit level, automatization of critical human works turns into a need. The ERP programming manages every single significant circle of an association running from item arranging and advancement to assembling just as deals and advertising of the items. Another comparative term for this framework is AIS or Accounting Information System (Rouse, 2016). This proficient structure is utilized by a business to gather, store, recover, oversee and process its money related information with the goal that it could be effortlessly dissected and decipher by bookkeepers, experts, bu siness examiners, directors, (CFOs), inspectors, and so forth. The AIS is introduced in an organization with an extreme point of actualizing the most elevated level of security and exactness in the organizations recordkeeping and budgetary exchanges. This information could then be lawfully gotten to by the ones who need it. The AIS essentially incorporates People, Procedure, Instructions, Data, Software, IT framework and Internal Controls (Beal, 2016). The accompanying business report is a push to propose the best Accounting Software for the two firms mulled over. While assessing the best programming, the business necessities are contemplated. The recently recommended ERP/AIS ought to have the capacity to address the present and likely difficulties of the organizations related with the Accounting framework. One of the considered organizations is Disk4U which sells CDs and Vinyl Records. It is a little family possessed business spread around the Sydney city. The other organization is Sungate Foods is a Victoria based rice and wild rice maker. The firm works through three preparing/a stockroom area while utilizing 100 representatives as the base staff and even has an advertising office in Melbourne, Victoria (Wiley, 2013). Business Processes A competent ERP program is a foundation of monetary and operational administration for best organizations. The execution of the product is without a doubt an extreme errand. The Business procedure for the bookkeeping programming starts with the investigation of genuine needs of the clients and their particular necessities with the product. After examination of the necessities, it gets significant for the specialist organizations to assemble assets for the equivalent. This procedure not just requires the product merchants to gather monetary assets for the product improvement, and yet there is an enormous necessity of gifted HR that could alter programming projects with the changing observations and prerequisites of the customers. Great IT administrators are likewise required to determine programming related issues looked by the clients. The assortment of assets is trailed by the advancement of programming by executing the information on the human asset in consistence with the necessit ies of the customers (Appian Team, 2016). Just the advancement of the product isn't important for conveying successful administrations to the customers, and yet it is vital that the organization should assemble assets for the executives of the product after it has been actualized in the customer organization. The innovation is changing at a fast pace and because of these progressions the virtual products should be overseen occasionally. As the product is being created for the bookkeeping office, henceforth a large portion of the individuals obtaining the administrations are not knowledgeable with the Information Technology condition and in the midst of accidents they certainly need the direction of the IT specialists from the specialist organizations (Lampathaki, et al., 2013). Before the execution and upkeep, the sellers need to elevate their administrations to the ones out of luck (Clients First Business Solutions LLC., 2016). For this an investigation of the business sectors is to be made and productive advancement channels are to be received. These channels are essentially intended to target explicit individuals at a solitary time. Now and again examination of necessities is required and once in a while needs are to be made among the customers about the items. The merchants in the business sectors for the most part offer comparable kinds of items and subsequently there emerges a need of offering extraordinary administrations which can vary one seller from another. This is the way that makes upper hand over the opponents for a firm. The extraordinary administrations of merchants likewise offer new encounters to the clients. Business Requirements Prior to building up the bookkeeping programming, there are various necessities that are to be met. The business necessity gives speeding up in the advancement of the product procedure. Nonetheless, when the necessities of the customers become increasingly explicit, at that point the prerequisite range additionally limits. The necessities of two customers in the business sectors are rarely same and thus the sellers need to remember this that while meeting the particular needs of one customer, the requirements of the other customer isn't disregarded. Business necessities are elevated level prerequisites that are commonly comprehended by the administration and a directorate. These prerequisites are to be in consistence with the administrations being offered by the outsider to the customer organization. The administration is said to intently examine such necessities and therefore the specialist organizations need to give a sharp consideration while meeting such prerequisites (1CC UK Team, 2007). The business prerequisites for actualizing proficient bookkeeping programming in the considered organization are practically comparable. Be that as it may, because of the size of the organization, these necessities may differ some of the time. The prerequisites are as per the following: As the organizations are moving from manual record the executives to computerized bookkeeping programming, subsequently the bookkeepers and different individuals from the customer organization should be knowledgeable with PCs and other specialized information which will help them in utilizing and keeping up the product to yield precise outcomes. The mechanized framework introduced in the customer organization ought to be of advance form. This will permit the product to run easily with no limitations. The outcomes yielded will be sans mistake. The propelled processing gadgets additionally offer an easy to use working condition to the clients. So the ones, who are not all that satisfied with mechanized bookkeeping frameworks, could likewise appreciate the speedy administrations of bookkeeping programming (Requirements Network Team, 2016). The product ought to have the ability to figure all finance prerequisites like PAYE, yearly leaves, long assistance leaves, and so forth. Additionally, while working at its best level for both the thought about organizations, the product should keep a point by point track of the clients, what they purchase at present and what are their desires with the organizations in the coming future. This is in like manner language known as Customer Relationship Management framework. The proficiency of the product will be improved on the off chance that it is intended to follow separate money related records for every business or division inside the business. As the business size for Disk4U is very little, consequently, its monetary frameworks could be taken care of with single programming. Be that as it may, Sungate Foods is an enormous business when contrasted with the previous organization. So the product ought to be effective enough to deal with different monetary exchanges and issues at a solitary time. The organization Disk4U is a little organization which sells CDs and Vinyl records to the clients. As the firm has right now went into the web based showcasing channels, at that point its prerequisites from the new bookkeeping programming is very explicit. For this organization, the new framework should join all the tasks like figurings of the clients visiting the organizations site a day, number of requests set or the things most perused. Aside from this, the product could likewise keep a record of the administrations conveyed by their workers and the board of their wages and additions. As the firm is very little and is extended inside a little region, thus its prerequisites are not large. However, the particular prerequisites need the specialist organizations to create altered programming that could address the issues of the customers. The organization Sungate Foods, albeit somewhat greater than the Disk4U, henceforth, its necessities contains various general just as explicit ones. The item delivered by the organization is a short-lived one and henceforth requires solid programming that could keep up records on the regular routine. Framework Requirements The opposition in the bookkeeping programming industry is developing at a quick pace and consequently the framework prerequisites are likewise changing in the comparable way. The organizations are currently creating virtual products as indicated by the headways in the Information Technology around the globe. The stages, on which these programming projects are running, are in a developing stage. When another stage is propelled, at that point the organizations need to revise their programming projects appropriately. The framework necessities of the bookkeeping programming essentially incorporate an Operating framework, a Minimum arrangement of Hardware, a Network, Printer Requirements, and so forth. As the organizations will introduce the bookkeeping programming just because, at that point the main OS is required for a recently introduced bookkeeping framework (The Sage Group plc, 2016). The propelled adaptation of Windows and iOS is favored over the others. Essentially, the equipment prerequisites for the propelled programming projects incorporate a fast chip with at least 5 gigabyte of free circle space at first. The systems set up for the effectiveness of the product ought to have secure links. The Wi-Fi associations between the Client/Workstation and Data server is commonly not upheld nor liked. Aside from the specialized
Saturday, August 22, 2020
Reusing and Reusing Classroom Materials Encourage your understudies great ecological propensities by reusing and reusing homeroom things at school. Not exclusively will you show how to carry on with an Eco-accommodating life, however you will likewise set aside a great deal of cash on homeroom supplies. Here are a couple of thoughts for taking your ordinary family unit things and reusing them at school. Jars, Cups, and Containers A modest and simple path for reusing at school is to solicit understudies to spare all from their jars, cups, and compartments. You can reuse these ordinary family unit things in the accompanying manners: Colored pencils jars: Collect little spread and icing holders and use them for your pastels. Pastel boxes will in general tear effectively, and along these lines understudies will have a solid colored pencil holder that should last all year long.Paint cups: Ask understudies to spare their yogurt cups and use them as paint cups.Paint compartments: Ask your neighborhood photograph shop to give their old film compartments. You can utilize these holders for singular work of art ventures. They are tough enough where they can be utilized over and over. Containers, Canisters, and Cardboard Containers Another path for reusing at school is to solicit understudies to spare all from their egg containers, espresso canisters, and cardboard compartments to reuse in the accompanying manners: Egg containers: Egg containers can be utilized to sort things, or as a paint holder, grower, or figure. It can likewise be utilized for an assortment of crafts.Coffee canisters: These can be utilized to store craftsmanship supplies and make specialties, or they can be utilized in games.Cardboard compartments: Cardboard inexpensive food holders can be utilized for artworks or unique tasks. Containers, Baskets, and Boxes Hair color or perm bottles, plastic clothing bushels, and boxes are a couple of other family unit things you may have around the house. Here are a couple of approaches to reuse them: Hair color bottles: At the start of the school year, ask your understudies guardians to spare their hair color bottles. You can utilize these jugs as paste containers.Laundry crates: Use plastic clothing bushels to store soft toys, spruce up garments, and supplies. These containers are modest and durable.Laundry boxes: Laundry boxes are a sorted out instructors dream. Cut the top off of the case and spread with contact paper, presently you can utilize them to store papers. They can likewise be utilized for exercises and games. You can even name each crate as per subject, on the off chance that you need to be ultra-organized.Baby wipe boxes: Baby wipe plastic boxes can be utilized to store markers, colored pencils, dice, pennies, dabs, pencils, catches, pins, shells, stones, catches, or pretty much anything.Cereal boxes: These containers can be cut and utilized as book covers, as a composition surface, or as label board. Pawns, Paper Towels, and Plastic Lids The plastic highest points of water bottles and the tops off of margarine and yogurt are incredible as game pieces. Here are a couple of different approaches to reuse and reuse plastic covers, and paper towel rolls: Water bottle tops: Water bottle tops can be utilized for game pieces. Have your understudies gather and spare the entirety of the tops to their water bottles. Shading the reasonable tops various hues and use them as prepackaged game pawns.Paper towel moves: Use paper towel and tissue moves for creates, for example, a stargazer, optics, or birdfeeder.Plastic covers: Collect plastic tops from espresso, yogurt, margarine, or anything like that size and use for makes or in the learning community. On the off chance that utilizing in the learning community, clear tops work best for question and answer exercises. In the case of utilizing for creates, covers can be utilized as napkins, plaques, casings, or Frisbees. Extra Ideas Wrapping paper: Can be utilized as the scenery of a release board, for montages, as book covers, or for paper weaving.Shredded paper: Can be utilized to stuff pads, bears, or exceptional projects.Hangers: Can be utilized as mobiles to hang understudy ventures, or as a standard. Reusing and Recycling Paper Try not to discard any of your old papers. Dated schedules can be utilized to rehearse number composition, augmentation tables, and learning roman numerals. While additional worksheets and old banners can be disseminated to understudies at available time for them to practice or play school. Old course readings can be utilized to rehearse significant aptitudes, for example, having understudies find and circle jargon words, action words, and things, or fortifying language structure and accentuation.
Friday, August 21, 2020
Writing an Outline For Writing a Research PaperWriting an outline for writing a research paper will help you focus your efforts on the areas that are going to make up the bulk of your paper. You should always begin by outlining what you will be covering in the different sections of your paper.Once you know what is to be covered in the writing you need to gather all of the information that you need. The purpose of this step is to make sure that everything that you are writing in regards to your research has been gathered accurately. Your outline for writing a research paper is only as good as the last few things that you wrote down.Before you get started with writing your outline for writing a research paper, you need to write a list of questions that you need to ask yourself. Questions such as what do I want to accomplish? What am I hoping to accomplish? Do I have a topic?You can usually use an outline for writing a particular research paper if you can describe your topic in one para graph or less. Writing an outline for writing a research paper is very easy once you start with the question of what to write about first.Another thing that will help you organize your outline for writing a research paper is to categorize the topics that you are going to be writing about. For example, if you are planning to cover a scientific debate over the effects of plastic and its dangers then you can organize your outline for writing a research paper into two main parts, scientific/medical debates, and environmental debates. By having this two-part structure you will be able to cover the subject quickly and easily.Now that you have your outline for writing a research paper organized into two main parts, you need to think about what exactly you are going to be writing about. Make sure that the information that you are going to be writing is accurate. If you are covering a debate over the effects of plastic then you need to know the answer to the following questions: What is plas tic? What makes plastic so dangerous?You also need to think about how to organize your writing in order to make it easier to read. Have a table that shows what your topics are and how they relate to each other. Use an outline for writing a research paper that is going to give you the order that you need to take.Your outline for writing a research paper is only as good as the first several pages. In order to make your paper flow well, you need to determine the parts of your paper before you get started. Knowing what to write about will also help you organize your paper, so that you have the information needed to move forward without stumbling.
Tuesday, May 26, 2020
Sample details Pages: 12 Words: 3733 Downloads: 1 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Finance Essay Type Analytical essay Did you like this example? This study examines the impact of liquidity on Islamic banks profitability during an 11 years period of 2001 to 2011. To explore and interpret the results the study has taken samples from five Islamic banks that have been in operation in Bangladesh on or before 2001 to till date. In order to construct the liquidity model it used four liquidity variables namely cash due from banks to total assets (CDTA), cash due from banks to total deposits (CDDEP), investment to total assets (INVSTA) and investment to total deposits (INVSDEP). DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "The Liquidity On Islamic Banks Finance Essay" essay for you Create order According to adjusted R squares profitability variables return on assets (ROA), return on equity (ROE) and return on deposits (ROD) are respectively 17.1%, 4.5% and 24.6% dependent on independent variables. The statistical results suggest that CDTA is found insignificant with all profitability variables, whereas CDDEP is individually significant with all profitability variables except ROE. On the other hand INVSTA and INVSDEP are recognized significant with all three profitability variables. However, when ROE stands for an insignificant relationship with the overall liquidity model, ROA and ROD are identified significantly correlated with the similar model at 1% significant level. The findings do strengthen the specification that the impact of liquidity reflects adequate imposition on profitability that the Islamic banks in Bangladesh must abide by. Keywords: Dependency level; Islamic Banking Goals; Liquidity ratios; Profitability ratios; Significance level. JEL Classification: G21 Introduction Business in Islam has always been viewed as an opportunity for potentials as long as it stands on moral and ethical grounds and conforms to the Islamic code of conduct. The actual role of Islamic bank inherits in promoting and empowering the banking services and product based on Islamic principles. The main principles of Islamic banking comprise of prohibition of interest in all forms of transactions, and undertaking business and trade activities on the basis of fair and legitimate profit (Haron and Shanmugan, 1997). But according to Islamic principles, reward, i.e. profit without sharing the risks or hazards in the economic understandings is totally prohibited. Perhaps, the most significant risk of an Islamic bank is to build a sound liquidity management. Islamic banking has gained much popularity in Bangladesh over the last few years. There is a high demand for interest-free banking services from a segment of people in Bangladesh who have a strong desire to abide by the rules and principles set by Shariah. Along with religious requirement, economic exigencies provide a new outlook to the role of banking in promoting investment / productive activities, influencing distribution of income and adding stability to the economy. The downturn in the United States in the late part of 2008 led to a dramatic downturn in businesses and financial institutions, not only in the United States but other countries as well (Lau, 2008). It affected the world stock markets and made large financial institutions to either go bankrupt or sell off their shares to the public (Anup, 2009). But surprisingly it could not affect the Islamic banking industry as much as expected. Most banks now keep protective reserves on top of planned reserves. Excess liquidity is reported in nearly all Islamic banks (Ali and Howlader, 2005). Due to unavailability of local capital market, Islamic banking sectors have been suffering from investing idle fund in liquid venture (Rashid and Nishat, 2009). Surplus liquidity with Islamic banks cannot be easily transferred to conventional banks since the Islamic banks do not accept interest; however there is room for exchange of surplus funds among the Islamic banks on a Mudarabah / Musharakah basis. The greater the number of Islamic banks and wider their activities, the greater will be the scope of cooperation in this field. So, what should be the crucial choice of an Islamic bank; whether to take fundamental choice of profit maximization or to concern more on assurance of liquidity in any banking business under Islamic principles? Possibly the answer could rise if we can have ideas on how liquidity position affects Islamic banks profitability. Analysis of financial statement has become very significant due to widespread interest of various parties in the financial result of a business unit. As a Muslim community, Bangladesh and its people are in greater interest for a Shariah approved banking system. The question from the pe ople arise when there are any lacking in response to customers demand (liquidity risk) as well as any deficiency in showing upward banks value (profitability risk). Consequently this is a demand of time now to evaluate the impact of liquidity risk on profitability for overall Islamic banking industry in Bangladesh, as this paper attempts to find. Literature Review Banks today are under great pressure to perform- to meet the objectives of their stockholders, employees, depositors and borrowing customers, while somehow keeping government regulators satisfied that the banks policies, loans and investments are sound (Rose, 2004-2005). At present a lot of countries around the world having twofold banking system, as interest free banks are functioning parallel to conventional banks (Akhtar, Ali and Sadaqat, 2011). In Islam, profit is simply a reward of taking risk. So, it should be a natural outcome of the fair play of the twin forces of demand and supply in the market (Latif, 1982). On the other hand liquidity implies availability of cash that how bank rapidly may convert its assets into cash to meet the need of short term. It is considered that it is life of the banks. Higher amount of the liquid assets reflect the greater liquidity of the firm (Akhter, Raza, Orangzab and Akram, 2011). The essence of liquidity management problem arises from t he fact that there is a trade-off between liquidity and profitability and mismatch between demand and supply (Khan and Ahmed, 2001). While the bank has no control over the sources of fund (deposits), it can control the use of funds. To support their depositors demand, banks need money, or in other sense the power to create money. That is why Akkas (1982) suggested that commercial banks should be compelled to keep reserves up to the full amount of their deposits, a reserve of 100 percent. Islamic principles are always in favor of non-inflationary economy. Therefore, bringing a kind of equilibrium between demand and supply for investible funds appears to be a major concern for financial intermediation (Siddiqui, 2010). But, it is to be noted that Islamic market mechanism does not support the concept of equilibrium price, rather, acts as the instrument to meet the effective demand of a consumer.Ã  Not only does Islamic banks profitability seem less volatile than that of convent ional peers, but it is also higher on average, at least in the GCC region (Hassoune, 2002). Haron (2004) said that liquidity, total expenditures, funds invested in Islamic securities, and the percentage of the profit-sharing ratio between the bank and the borrower of funds are highly correlated with the level of total income received by the Islamic banks. Similar effects are found for external factors such as interest rates, market share and size of the banks. He also added that other determinants such as funds deposited into current accounts, total capital and reserves, the percentage of profit sharing between bank and depositors, and money supply also play a major role in influencing the profitability of Islamic banks. Return on assets is a good indicator of a banks financial performance and managerial efficiency. It shows how competent the management is in allocating asset into net profit. The higher the ROA, the higher is the financial performance or profitability of the bank s (Samad, 2004). Return on equity measures the rate of return on the bases of capital and equity capital (Akhter, Raza, Orangzab and Akram, 2011). This ratio indicates how bank can generate profit with the money shareholders have invested. The higher value of this ratio shows higher financial performance. Like ROA, ROE is also an indicator for managerial efficiency (Ika and Abdullah, 2011). Return on deposits shows percentage return on each currency of customers deposit. In other words, it indicates the effectiveness of bank in converting deposit into net earnings (Rosly and Bakar, 2003). However, profitability is only part of bank performance story (Samad and Hasan, 1999). Cash in a bank vault is the most liquid asset of a bank. Cash assets include vault cash held on bank premises, deposits the bank holds at the Central bank in its district, deposits held with other banks to compensate them for clearing checks and other interbank services, and cash items in the process of collec tion (Rose, 2004-2005). A higher cash-deposit ratio indicates that a bank is relatively more liquid than a bank which has lower cash-deposit ratio. Depositors trust to bank is enhanced when a bank maintains a higher cash-deposit ratio. On the other hand an increase in loan-deposit ratio indicates that a bank is in more financial stress by making too much loan. Therefore, lower loan-deposit ratio is always favorable to higher loan-deposit ratio (Samad and Hasan, 1999). Loans-assets ratio measures the percentage of assets that are tied up in loans. The higher the ratio, the less liquid the bank will be (Samad, 2004). While making significant progress in return on assets (ROA) and return on equity (ROE), the liquidity performance of Bank Islam Malaysia (BIMB, the single full-fledged Islamic bank in Malaysia) between 1984-89 and 1990-97 in various measures such as cash-deposit ratio, loan-deposit ratio and current ratio showed neither deterioration nor improvement (Samad and Hassan, 1999). Chowdhury and Ahmed (2009) investigated that total deposits of Islami Bank Bangladesh Ltd. was higher in comparison to some non-Islamic banks during 2002 to 2006. Saifullah (2010) argued that Islamic banks in Bangladesh are superior to Conventional banks after an overall assessment of financial performance including liquidity and profitability position. When making comparisons across firms (or over time), it is useful to control for differences in their resource base (Foster, 2002). At the same time liquidity of those resources is of paramount significance for banks (Maheshwari and Maheshwari, 2002). Akhtar, Ali and Sadaqat (2011) found positive but insignificant relationship of size of the bank and net-working capital to net assets with liquidity risk in Islamic banks. In addition return on assets (ROE) in Islamic banks is found to be positive and significant with liquidity risk at 10% significant level. A study over determinants of Jordanian Islamic banks profitabilit y revealed that there are significant and positive relationship between Return on Assets and Provision for Credit Facilities + Interest in Suspense / Credit Facilities, Total Equity / Total Assets and Total Income / Total Asset of the Islamic banking, and there are significant and negative relationship between ROA and the Bank Size, Total Liabilities / Total Assets, Annual Growth Rate for Gross domestic product, Inflation Rate and Exchange Rate of the Islamic Banking. Also this study found that there are significant and positive relationship between Return on Equity and Log TA, TL / TA, TI /TA and ERS of the Islamic banking, and there are significant and negative relationship between ROE and PRFCFI / CF, TE / TA, GDPGR and INF of the Islamic Banking (Khrawish, Siam and Khrawish, 2011). Naceur and Goaied (2010) investigation regarding the determinants of the Tunisian banks performances during the period 1980-1995 showed that the principal determinants of a banks performance are by order of importance: labor productivity, bank portfolio composition, capital productivity and bank capitalization. Athanasoglou, Delis and Staikouras (2008) examined the profitability behavior of bank-specific, industry-related and macroeconomic determinants, using an unbalanced panel dataset of South Eastern European (SEE) credit institutions over the period 1998-2002. The estimation results indicated that, with the exception of liquidity, all bank-specific determinants significantly affect bank profitability in the anticipated way. The paper concludes with some remarks on the practicality and implements ability of the findings. Using bank level data for 80 countries in the 1988-1995 periods, a study suggested that interest margins differences and banks profitability reflect a variety of determinants such as; bank characteristics, macroeconomic conditions, explicit and implicit bank taxation, deposit insurance regulation, overall financial structure, and several underlying lega l and institutional indicators (DemirgÃ ¼Ã §-Kunt and Huizinga, 1998). Shahchera (2012) analyzed the impact of liquid asset holdings on bank profitability for a sample of Iranian banks. Applying the Generalized Method of Moment (GMM), this study analyzed the profitability of listed banks using unbalanced panel data over the period of 2002-2009. An important finding of this study is that the business cycle significantly affects bank profits. The coefficient of regulation is negative and significant. Therefore if regulators reduce the constraints imposed on banks, banks obtain profit. Liquidity is of vital importance to the daily operations of a bank. Maintenance of a sound liquidity position of the bank is necessary to protect the bank against uncertainties of its business. Maintenance of liquidity bears both risk and return. A tradeoff between these two elements can minimize the conflict between liquidity versus profitability of a bank (Islam, 2008). As stated by Islam (2008) K och (1992) believed that there is a short-run tradeoff between liquidity and profitability. The more liquid a bank is, the lower are its return on equity (ROE) and return on assets (ROA), all other things being equal. Therefore, statistical significance of liquidity on profitability can be a great factor for potential investors. In a nutshell the influence of Islamic banks liquidity cannot be negligible when considering profit as their most vigorous concern. Methodology 3.1 Sample Design and Data Collection In Bangladesh, currently seven Islamic banks are providing their services as pure Islamic banks and running their operations under the guidance of Islamic Shariah. Among them, five Islamic banks have been selected to investigate the impact of Islamic banks liquidity risk on profitability over the period of 11 years during 2001 to 2011.Ã Ã Selected Islamic banks are- 1. Islami Bank Bangladesh Limited 2. Shahjalal Islami Bank Limited 3. Al-Arafah Islami Bank Limited 4. Export Import Bank of Bangladesh Limited 5. Social Islami Bank Limited The data used in this study are compiled from income statements and balance sheets of selected banks from their each year annual report. The study model is tested on time series cross-sectional bank level data in the context of Bangladesh over the period 2001 to 2011. Thus, present study has been conducted taking into account a total samples of [5ÃÆ'Ãâ-11] 55 under each variable. 3.2 Explanatory Variables To analyze the liquidity impact on profitability using multiple regression analysis, variables were assigned into two sections- Dependent Variables: Return on Assets = Net Income after Taxes / Total Assets Return on Equity = Net Income after Taxes / Total Equity Capital Account Return on Deposits = Net Income after Taxes / Total Deposits Independent Variables: Cash Due from Banks to Total Assets = Cash Due from Banks / Total Assets Cash Due from Banks to Total Deposits = Cash Due from Banks / Total Deposits Investment (Loans Advances) to Total Assets = Investment / Total Assets Investment (Loans Advances) to Total Deposits = Investment / Total Deposits 3.3 Research Model and Hypotheses The current research is being conducted to evaluate the impact of liquidity on profitability by applying multiple linear regression model which had previously been developed and applied by DemirgÃ ¼Ã §-Kunt and Huizinga (1999), Haron (2004), Athanasoglou, Delis and Staikouras (2008), Toni (2008), Naceur and Goaied (2008), Saleem and Rehman (2011), Khrawish, Siam and Khrawish (2011), Shahchera (2012) and many more in essence of their contribution to banking, economics and finance. Utilizing the similar model these preceding studies focused on assessing diverse determinants of Islamic banks profitability. Present study used the same model but for only to strengthening on liquidity variables in order to demonstrate their impact on profitability. Current research model is as follows- Where, ROA = Return on assets ROE = Return on equity ROD = Return on deposits CDTA = Cash due from banks to total assets CDDEP = Cash due from banks to total deposits INVSTA = Inve stment (loans advances) to total assets INVSDEP = Investment (loans advances) to total deposits ÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ °Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ" = constant term ÃÆ'Ã ¡ÃâÃ µÃâÃ ¦ = slopes associated with the independent (liquidity) variables i = banks t = time ÃÆ'Ã ¢Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¡ÃâÃ ¬ = error term To do the analysis following two hypotheses were designed: There is an insignificant relationship between liquidity and profitability, i.e. H0: b1 = b2 = b3 = b4 = 0 (null hypothesis) There is a significant relationship between liquidity and profitability, i.e. Ha: b1 ÃÆ'Ã ¢Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã °ÃâÃ b2 ÃÆ'Ã ¢Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã °ÃâÃ b3 ÃÆ'Ã ¢Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã °ÃâÃ b4 ÃÆ'Ã ¢Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã °ÃâÃ 0 (alternative hypothesis) 4 Statistical Results and Analyses The statistical analysis of secondary data has been divided into three dimensions, i.e. descriptive, correlation and regression. All the statistical tests have been performed through SPSS V15.0. 4.1 Descriptive Statistics Table 1 shows descriptive statistics for dependent and independent variables. The analyzed statistics figures illustrate the mean, standard deviation, maximum and minimum values of Islamic banks. The statistics suggest irregular drawbacks in minimum value of ROA ROD, even more in ROE, leading to a dramatic decrease in percentage return for overall Islamic banking industry.Ã Ã The mean value of dependent variables imply that maximum portion of banks income goes for shareholders, as here ROE indicates greater outcome in percentage return in comparisons to ROA or ROD. However, according to the statistics, the fraction of investment in total assets and total deposits exceeds cash due from banks to a great extent if we take a look at their mean values. Table 1 Descriptive Statistics Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation Dependent Variable ROA -4.85 3.07 1.2060 1.05572 ROE -176.07 38.81 15.8591 27.86636 ROD -5.20 3.66 1.4722 1.22965 Independent Variable CDTA 9.94 82.12 21.4307 12.59587 CDDEP 11.62 95.43 25.3715 14.06618 INVSTA 13.33 82.51 70.2224 11.45243 INVSDEP 15.49 103.86 84.2804 15.55431 Source: Calculated value using Annual Reports of the banks issued by Dhaka Stock Exchange (2001-2011) 4.2 Correlation Matrix The correlation coefficients are stated in Table 2. This gives information on the degree of correlation between all the dependent (profitability) and independent (liquidity) variables used in the analysis. The opportunity has been tested with the Pearson correlation coefficients test. The result indicates that the liquidity variables CDTA and CDDEP are negatively related with all selected profitability variables. On the other hand, the remaining two liquidity variables INVSTA and INVSDEP are positively related with all three profitability variables. Table 2 Correlation Matrix of Profitability and Liquidity Variables ROA ROE ROD CDTA CDDEP INVSTA INVSDEP ROA 1 ROE .905** 1 ROD .994** .867** 1 CDTA -.232 -.062 -.260 1 CDDEP -.206 -.048 -.226 .993** 1 INVSTA .222 .037 .252 -.945** -.936** 1 INVSDEP .326* .115 .376** -.896** -.856** .950** 1 Pearson Correlation Coefficient ** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed) * Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed) Source: Calculated value using Annual Reports of the banks issued by Dhaka Stock Exchange (2001-2011) 4.3 Regression Results Tables 3, Table 4 Table 5 report the results of regression analysis in which four independent variables are regressed by using the data of Islamic banks of Bangladesh from 2001 to 2011. The adjusted value of R squares indicate that ROA, ROE and ROD of Islamic banks of Bangladesh are respectively 17.1%, 4.5% and 24.6% dependent on independent variables, i.e. CDTA, CDDEP, INVSTA and INVSDEP. Therefore, as liquidity factor, these four variables are considered major issues to defining profitability of Islamic banks in Bangladesh over eleven years period. Table 3 Regression Results of ROA (2001-2011) Model 1 Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients t Sig. B Std. Error Beta (Constant) 2.125 3.118 .681 .499 CDTA .293 .186 3.502 1.576 .121 CDDEP -.274 .161 -3.652 -1.699 .096* INVSTA -.194 .074 -2.110 -2.630 .011** INVSDEP .159 .054 2.343 2.948 .005*** R squared .233 Adjusted R squared .171 F statistics esults 3.792 P-value .009*** Durbin-Watson 1.635 *** Significant at the 1% level ** Significant at the 5% level *Significant at the 10% level Source: Calculated value using Annual Reports of the banks issued by Dhaka Stock Exchange (2001-2011) According to the regression results as specified in Table 3, CDTA and INVSDEP are positively correlated with ROA. Alternatively CDDEP and INVSTA show negative relationship with ROA. With an exception to CDTA; rest independent variables CDDEP, INVSTA and INVSDEP are significantly correlated with ROA at 10%, 5% and 1% significant level in that order. Durbin-Watson test shows that the residuals are positively correlated. At overall 1% significant level as per p-value the liquidity model [Model 1] is significantly correlated with ROA. So the null hypothesis (H0) is rejected and alternative hypothesis (Ha) accepted here. Table 4 Regression Results of ROE (2001-2011) Model 2 Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients t Sig. B Std. Error Beta (Constant) 77.929 88.349 .882 .382 CDTA 7.326 5.277 3.312 1.388 .171 CDDEP -6.960 4.571 -3.513 -1.523 .134 INVSTA -4.796 2.096 -1.971 -2.289 .026** INVSDEP 3.492 1.528 1.949 2.285 .027** R squared .116 Adjusted R squared .045 F statistics 1.637 P-value .180 Durbin-Watson 2.024 *** Significant at the 1% level ** Significant at the 5% level * Significant at the 10% level Source: Calculated value using Annual Reports of the banks issued by Dhaka Stock Exchange (2001-2011) Table 4 represents that CDTA and INVSDEP are positively correlated with ROE. At the same time CDDEP and INVSTA create negative correlation with ROE. Here, only INVSTA and INVSDEP are found significant with ROE at 5% significant level. As Durbin-Watson statistic is approximately very close to 2, therefore the residuals are uncorrelated. However, according to p-value the overall liquidity model [Model 2] is not significantly related with ROE at any formulated level. Thus the null hypothesis (H0) is accepted for the relationship of liquidity and profitability (ROE). Table 5 Regression Results of ROD (2001-2011) Model 3 Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients t Sig. B Std. Error Beta (Constant) 2.433 3.464 .702 .486 CDTA .340 .207 3.480 1.642 .107 CDDEP -.317 .179 -3.631 -1.771 .083* INVSTA -.245 .082 -2.284 -2.985 .004*** INVSDEP .202 .060 2.557 3.373 .001*** R squared .302 Adjusted R squared .246 F statistics 5.404 P-value .001*** Durbin-Watson 1.599 *** Significant at the 1% level ** Significant at the 5% level * Significant at the 10% level Source: Calculated value using Annual Reports of the banks issued by Dhaka Stock Exchange (2001-2011) As demonstrated in Table 5 ROD has positive relation with CDTA and INVSDEP, and negative relation with CDDEP and INVSTA. Here, only insignificant variable is CDTA. CDDEP is significantly related with ROD at 10% level. At 1% significant level both liquidity variables INVSTA and INVSDEP are detected statistically significant with ROD. Durbin-Watson test indicates positive autocorrelation for the residuals. As per p-value the model [Model 3] is statistically significant with ROD at 1% significant level. As a result here the null hypothesis (H0) is rejected and alternative hypothesis (Ha) accepted. 5 Conclusion The current study marks the very first attempt to analyze liquidity impact on Islamic banks profitability in Bangladesh during the period 2001 to 2011. Major parts of the study results reveal greater dependency of banks profitability on liquidity. Specifically cash due from banks to total assets is not significant with any profitability variables. Cash due from banks to total deposits is found insignificant with ROE, but significant with ROA and ROD at 10% significant level. Other two independent variables investment to total assets and investment to total deposits are individually and significantly correlated with all selected profitability variables. Investment to total assets is significant with ROA and ROE at 5% significant level and with ROD at 1% significant level. On the other hand, investment to total deposits is significantly correlated with ROA and ROD at 1% significant level and with ROE at 5% significant level. The entire liquidity model is found statistically signifi cant with ROA and ROD at 1% significant level. The reason to discover ROE less dependent and insignificant with the overall liquidity model is possibly due to that huge loss in foreign transaction by Shahjalal Islami Bank Limited in the financial year 2004. However, adding further liquidity variable to the model may make it more or less significant with profitability. In addition, it should also be said that liquidity is not the single reason to defining Islamic banks profitability. Therefore, in any affair, current study serves as initial movement, leaving spaces for future researches to enhance and enrich its outlook.
Friday, May 15, 2020
Balance Between Sense and Sensibility in Jane Austens Northanger Abbey Throughout her novel, Northanger Abbey, Jane Austen integrates parody with characterization to emphasize the necessity of a balance between sense and sensibility while reflecting a theme of the initiation of a young woman into the complexities of adult social life. This novel can be traced back as one of Jane Austens earliest works. It was written in 1798, but not published until 1818, and is an excellent example of what Austen believed a novel should not be. In the work Jane Austens Novels Social Change and Literary Form, Julia Prewitt Brown states The evident purpose of Northanger Abbey is to burlesque the popular fiction of her day, to carry its conventionsÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The first paragraph of the first chapter in the novel uses subtle Irony to depict to the reader what Catherine Moorland was not. Catherine was not a girl with extraordinary beauty and ability of a classic romantic heroine, but an ordinary girl who may possibly lack extraordinary beauty and ability. In the novel, Catherine travels to Bath where she comes into contact with silly and tasteless people, the Thorpes. This contrast makes Catherine shine brighter. Catherine also comes into contact with the Tilneys, who were educated, well-bred people with a sense of humor. Their influence helps Catherine to develop into a sensible character, relieved of romantic notions, to become a charming wife for Henry Tilney. Upon introduction in the novel, Catherine Moorland reflects a character that epitomizes the characteristic of sensibility. In the 19th century sensibility was a characteristic based on imagination, fantasy, innocence, passion, and creative thinking. The conventions of the gothic novel overlap, in all its forms, with sensibility, in part because it concerns a suffering protagonist. In this novel Catherines confusion of the world of romance with the everyday world begins innocently and is the cause of her suffering. To relieve her suffering and become a mature adult Catherine must learn to distinguish between illusion and reality, to be aware that the imagination has the power to enforce its own slanted vision upon the world. Through a series of interactions withShow MoreRelatedJane Austen And The Golden Mean2893 Words Ã |Ã 12 PagesCamila Hernandez Mrs. Izquierdo English 10 Per.3 26 February 2015 Jane Austen and The Golden Mean One of the most famous authors of the Regency period, Jane Austen, the novelist whom wrote Sense and Sensibility and many other novels, made a splash in the literature world for women. Being a woman was very difficult during the Regency period and women were not treated as equals to men. In the novel, Sense and Sensibility, Jane Austen shows the strength of women and how even when all the odds areRead MoreManners in Pride and Prejudice by Jane Austen3437 Words Ã |Ã 14 Pages Pride and Prejudice Jane Austens Pride and Prejudice not only established her historical importance among scholars and critics, but continues to remain popular. Pride and Prejudice, a comedy of manners, was published in 1813, and is a staple of the English literature. It recreates the social world of the landed gentry of early 19th-century England and embodies the theme that preconceptions and egotism can overcome true love. Pride and Prejudice is somewhat autobiographical; emphasizes the key elements
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
The Comparative Method: Moving Beyond Qualitative and Quantitative Strategies by Charles C. Ragin describes several aspects of the comparative research process. He describes in detail the strategies a comparative researcher can employ and the differences and similarities of these strategies. He notes that the comparative approach is primarily of a qualitative nature and is by its very nature different from quantitative scientific methodology based upon statistical inference. During the course of this report, RaginÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"The Comparative MethodÃ¢â¬ will be described by its major points and descriptions of comparative research. Several weaknesses will be identified and described. And finally, this report will seek to discuss how these weaknesses can be overcome or mitigated. Description of Ã¢â¬Å"The Comparative MethodÃ¢â¬ . This book describes several components of comparative research and some factors which influences this type of research. 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Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Movie Messsages Night Mail and Drifters Essay What message does John Grierson want to transmit in his films Night Mail and Drifters? John Grierson (1898-1972) was a British intellectual who believed in the political role of the artist and emphasized social purpose through the creation of documentary films. Grierson is considered to be the father of documentary film. I am going to discuss two of his films: Night Mail (1930) and Drifters (1929). Night Mail is one of a number of films associated with his work, who led a group including Basil Wright, Stuart Legg, Paul Rotha and Arthur Elton. Night Mail was the first of its kind in terms of Short Film with documentary styling. The film promoted a government agency, the GPO that was a monopoly that covered mail and telegraphs as well as other new electronic systems linked to defense and national security. The GPO film unit made documentaries to promote British industry to the British public. The film was under the direction of Basil Wright and Harry Watt working with John Grierson as a producer. The film documents the struggle and processes gone through by the Royal Mail Train Delivery service that travels from London to Scotland in the 1930s. Night Mail is a propagandistic film that looks at various things such as the way the post was sorted, dropped and collected from various places by catching the bags at high speeds in retracting net and the teamwork spirit of the post office employees. The journey that the train does provides the narrative structure of the film and the places that the train passes through are used to construct a particular representation of Britain. However, in what the film seems more interested about is in persuading and promoting the ideas of the government. The film is trying to show us how reliable the mail delivery is as it can deliver the mail on time, how powerful and useful the service is and how caring the government employees who do their task are. Night Mail is a didactic, inspirational and propagandistic documentary with the intention of revealing and informing about how efficient the government employees are. It uses propaganda techniques in a more indirect way than the audience might have expected. The train works in both a political and social function. The film focuses on the skill of workers and the importance of their role for maintaining Britains success as a world power. Through the shots of the trains carrying the post overnight and their arrival in different cities as well as the hard work of the workers doing their best to process the mail on time, Grierson invites the audience into the realistic representation of the postal service working class and their dedication towards the British nation. A completely proud positive statement is made in this film about working life in Industrial Britain and its achieved through the union of poetry and realism. Night Mail starts with a voiceover commentary describing how the mail is collected. Then, as the train continues with its journey, we can see the different railway stations at which it stops to collect and drop the mail. Grierson explains every meaning of the postal service to the audience showing various scenes like the bags of mail exiting and entering the train. The characters of the film had a scripted dialog and they communicated with each other which add to its nature of being a film that pushes for a social issue to influence its viewers. In this film Grierson wants to present the working class as heroes, he doesnt show much about the characters personality and hides their personal lives (how much they earn, how they eat or how they live) and this just makes the audience realize that whats important in this film is not the workers lives but the dedication they have towards Great Britain, and thats what Grierson wants the vital message for the film to be. This short documentary wants to impress its viewers and influence them into thinking of the industry as strong and well positioned to be a world power. It doesnt happen by accident, films are designed to have effects on viewers ? (Bordwell and Thompson, 2008). The audience never gets to see the commentator but he is present through the whole film. The narrative is unique and the voiceover tries to tell to the audience exactly what journey the train does and how the workers do a great job collecting and sorting out the mail, the images on the screen therefore just emphasize the narrative. Actors Chinedu Ikedieze and Osita Iheme EssayThe editing of this film consists of various individually filmed shots that when they are put together produce a coherent story creating a montage or a sequence. What I find that is special about this documentary it is not just the realism of the events happening in the images, but the way the footage is put together and how it creates something fascinating. Grierson puts together effective montages that cut between the pulse of the boats machinery, the hard work of the fishermen doing their job and the bad weather that doesnt help with the fishing. The film doesnt have any tension or drama but it has a beauty in its imagery that makes it hard to look away from. Because of the constant focus on machines and Industrial Britain, Grierson clearly sides with modernity. However, the shots keep jumping back and forth between the fisherman that are struggling with the weight of the nets, the instruments going all over the place and with uncompromising weather shows that his feelings about modernity are ambivalent and all combined it shows the audience the fantastic relation between man and nature. I find that the film is a bit slow and I think that theres a frequent repetition of various shots that theres no point in having, for example the shot where you can only see the fishermans legs and boots going down the stairs in the boat, I find that the shot shouldnt be repeated so often. Grierson doesnt show much about any of the crew members and I think he could of made the film more interesting by showing a bit more of them, especially of the captain of the boat who lies awake at night and the cabin boy who is learning how to cook for all the fishermen. These two characters seem to have natural and strong personalities that Grierson should have taken advantage of and would have made the film more interesting to the audience because the result of the film is not entirely satisfying. However, apart from the film being a bit to slow, I think that the film is shot and edited in a very artistic way and I especially like the close up shots of the fishes and the seagulls following the boat. I think that the film offers the viewer a different kind of visual pleasure that shows the directors commitment to experimentation with form. The narrative of the documentary allows the audience to get close to the fisherman in order to observe their unseen activities. In this film Grierson shows the fascination that he has for the natural world: for the fisherman and for the seagulls, for the weather changes and for their strange moods and untold stories. I think one of the best scenes of this documentary and the one that makes the film stand out is the fishing scene where the small boat and the sailors have a showdown with the dangerous North Atlantic ocean. In conclusion, I think that Grierson makes it very clear to the audience what the message he wants to transmit in his films. What Grierson seems more interested about his films is in persuading and promoting an idea of the government and showing the audience the dedication of the working class towards the British nation. He presents the working class as heroes and he purposely hides the characters personality and their personal lives making the audience realize that whats important in his film is the dedication that the workers have towards Great Britain. A completely proud and positive statement is shown in both of the films about the working life in Industrial Britain and how useful and caring the government employees who do their task are. Griersons films have a constant focus on machine parts and industrial Britain and this shows us how he clearly sides with modernity. Both films have an artistic style and they both use a lot of close up shots and point of view shots. I think overall that the visual imagery in both films is fascinating and shows how Grierson was a master of his trade. Bibliography: Bordwell, D and Thompson, K (2008) Film Art: An Introduction, Eighth Edition: University of Wisonsin. Nichols, Introduction to Documentary. http://www.griersontrust.org/john-grierson.html http://books.google.es/books?id=YmdwyztGND0Cpg=PA39dq=grierson+night+mailhl=essa=Xei=cVMAVKKIHLKB7QbMr4GoCQved=0CG8Q6AEwCQ#v=onepageq=grierson night mailf=false http://books.google.es/books?id=Rt0Wwjs4zyYCpg=PA80lpg=PA80dq=drifters+flahertysource=blots=E3Up137nXjsig=wc517yCLoH8IjY2-Sji2k0IcEBkhl=essa=Xei=31sAVIHWKsblaKn_grAIved=0CEQQ6AEwBDgK#v=onepageq=drifters flahertyf=false