Tuesday, May 26, 2020

The Liquidity On Islamic Banks Finance Essay - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 12 Words: 3733 Downloads: 1 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Finance Essay Type Analytical essay Did you like this example? This study examines the impact of liquidity on Islamic banks profitability during an 11 years period of 2001 to 2011. To explore and interpret the results the study has taken samples from five Islamic banks that have been in operation in Bangladesh on or before 2001 to till date. In order to construct the liquidity model it used four liquidity variables namely cash due from banks to total assets (CDTA), cash due from banks to total deposits (CDDEP), investment to total assets (INVSTA) and investment to total deposits (INVSDEP). Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "The Liquidity On Islamic Banks Finance Essay" essay for you Create order According to adjusted R squares profitability variables return on assets (ROA), return on equity (ROE) and return on deposits (ROD) are respectively 17.1%, 4.5% and 24.6% dependent on independent variables. The statistical results suggest that CDTA is found insignificant with all profitability variables, whereas CDDEP is individually significant with all profitability variables except ROE. On the other hand INVSTA and INVSDEP are recognized significant with all three profitability variables. However, when ROE stands for an insignificant relationship with the overall liquidity model, ROA and ROD are identified significantly correlated with the similar model at 1% significant level. The findings do strengthen the specification that the impact of liquidity reflects adequate imposition on profitability that the Islamic banks in Bangladesh must abide by. Keywords: Dependency level; Islamic Banking Goals; Liquidity ratios; Profitability ratios; Significance level. JEL Classification: G21 Introduction Business in Islam has always been viewed as an opportunity for potentials as long as it stands on moral and ethical grounds and conforms to the Islamic code of conduct. The actual role of Islamic bank inherits in promoting and empowering the banking services and product based on Islamic principles. The main principles of Islamic banking comprise of prohibition of interest in all forms of transactions, and undertaking business and trade activities on the basis of fair and legitimate profit (Haron and Shanmugan, 1997). But according to Islamic principles, reward, i.e. profit without sharing the risks or hazards in the economic understandings is totally prohibited. Perhaps, the most significant risk of an Islamic bank is to build a sound liquidity management. Islamic banking has gained much popularity in Bangladesh over the last few years. There is a high demand for interest-free banking services from a segment of people in Bangladesh who have a strong desire to abide by the rules and principles set by Shariah. Along with religious requirement, economic exigencies provide a new outlook to the role of banking in promoting investment / productive activities, influencing distribution of income and adding stability to the economy. The downturn in the United States in the late part of 2008 led to a dramatic downturn in businesses and financial institutions, not only in the United States but other countries as well (Lau, 2008). It affected the world stock markets and made large financial institutions to either go bankrupt or sell off their shares to the public (Anup, 2009). But surprisingly it could not affect the Islamic banking industry as much as expected. Most banks now keep protective reserves on top of planned reserves. Excess liquidity is reported in nearly all Islamic banks (Ali and Howlader, 2005). Due to unavailability of local capital market, Islamic banking sectors have been suffering from investing idle fund in liquid venture (Rashid and Nishat, 2009). Surplus liquidity with Islamic banks cannot be easily transferred to conventional banks since the Islamic banks do not accept interest; however there is room for exchange of surplus funds among the Islamic banks on a Mudarabah / Musharakah basis. The greater the number of Islamic banks and wider their activities, the greater will be the scope of cooperation in this field. So, what should be the crucial choice of an Islamic bank; whether to take fundamental choice of profit maximization or to concern more on assurance of liquidity in any banking business under Islamic principles? Possibly the answer could rise if we can have ideas on how liquidity position affects Islamic banks profitability. Analysis of financial statement has become very significant due to widespread interest of various parties in the financial result of a business unit. As a Muslim community, Bangladesh and its people are in greater interest for a Shariah approved banking system. The question from the pe ople arise when there are any lacking in response to customers demand (liquidity risk) as well as any deficiency in showing upward banks value (profitability risk). Consequently this is a demand of time now to evaluate the impact of liquidity risk on profitability for overall Islamic banking industry in Bangladesh, as this paper attempts to find. Literature Review Banks today are under great pressure to perform- to meet the objectives of their stockholders, employees, depositors and borrowing customers, while somehow keeping government regulators satisfied that the banks policies, loans and investments are sound (Rose, 2004-2005). At present a lot of countries around the world having twofold banking system, as interest free banks are functioning parallel to conventional banks (Akhtar, Ali and Sadaqat, 2011). In Islam, profit is simply a reward of taking risk. So, it should be a natural outcome of the fair play of the twin forces of demand and supply in the market (Latif, 1982). On the other hand liquidity implies availability of cash that how bank rapidly may convert its assets into cash to meet the need of short term. It is considered that it is life of the banks. Higher amount of the liquid assets reflect the greater liquidity of the firm (Akhter, Raza, Orangzab and Akram, 2011). The essence of liquidity management problem arises from t he fact that there is a trade-off between liquidity and profitability and mismatch between demand and supply (Khan and Ahmed, 2001). While the bank has no control over the sources of fund (deposits), it can control the use of funds. To support their depositors demand, banks need money, or in other sense the power to create money. That is why Akkas (1982) suggested that commercial banks should be compelled to keep reserves up to the full amount of their deposits, a reserve of 100 percent. Islamic principles are always in favor of non-inflationary economy. Therefore, bringing a kind of equilibrium between demand and supply for investible funds appears to be a major concern for financial intermediation (Siddiqui, 2010). But, it is to be noted that Islamic market mechanism does not support the concept of equilibrium price, rather, acts as the instrument to meet the effective demand of a consumer.  [1] Not only does Islamic banks profitability seem less volatile than that of convent ional peers, but it is also higher on average, at least in the GCC region (Hassoune, 2002). Haron (2004) said that liquidity, total expenditures, funds invested in Islamic securities, and the percentage of the profit-sharing ratio between the bank and the borrower of funds are highly correlated with the level of total income received by the Islamic banks. Similar effects are found for external factors such as interest rates, market share and size of the banks. He also added that other determinants such as funds deposited into current accounts, total capital and reserves, the percentage of profit sharing between bank and depositors, and money supply also play a major role in influencing the profitability of Islamic banks. Return on assets is a good indicator of a banks financial performance and managerial efficiency. It shows how competent the management is in allocating asset into net profit. The higher the ROA, the higher is the financial performance or profitability of the bank s (Samad, 2004). Return on equity measures the rate of return on the bases of capital and equity capital (Akhter, Raza, Orangzab and Akram, 2011). This ratio indicates how bank can generate profit with the money shareholders have invested. The higher value of this ratio shows higher financial performance. Like ROA, ROE is also an indicator for managerial efficiency (Ika and Abdullah, 2011). Return on deposits shows percentage return on each currency of customers deposit. In other words, it indicates the effectiveness of bank in converting deposit into net earnings (Rosly and Bakar, 2003). However, profitability is only part of bank performance story (Samad and Hasan, 1999). Cash in a bank vault is the most liquid asset of a bank. Cash assets include vault cash held on bank premises, deposits the bank holds at the Central bank in its district, deposits held with other banks to compensate them for clearing checks and other interbank services, and cash items in the process of collec tion (Rose, 2004-2005). A higher cash-deposit ratio indicates that a bank is relatively more liquid than a bank which has lower cash-deposit ratio. Depositors trust to bank is enhanced when a bank maintains a higher cash-deposit ratio. On the other hand an increase in loan-deposit ratio indicates that a bank is in more financial stress by making too much loan. Therefore, lower loan-deposit ratio is always favorable to higher loan-deposit ratio (Samad and Hasan, 1999). Loans-assets ratio measures the percentage of assets that are tied up in loans. The higher the ratio, the less liquid the bank will be (Samad, 2004). While making significant progress in return on assets (ROA) and return on equity (ROE), the liquidity performance of Bank Islam Malaysia (BIMB, the single full-fledged Islamic bank in Malaysia) between 1984-89 and 1990-97 in various measures such as cash-deposit ratio, loan-deposit ratio and current ratio showed neither deterioration nor improvement (Samad and Hassan, 1999). Chowdhury and Ahmed (2009) investigated that total deposits of Islami Bank Bangladesh Ltd. was higher in comparison to some non-Islamic banks during 2002 to 2006. Saifullah (2010) argued that Islamic banks in Bangladesh are superior to Conventional banks after an overall assessment of financial performance including liquidity and profitability position. When making comparisons across firms (or over time), it is useful to control for differences in their resource base (Foster, 2002). At the same time liquidity of those resources is of paramount significance for banks (Maheshwari and Maheshwari, 2002). Akhtar, Ali and Sadaqat (2011) found positive but insignificant relationship of size of the bank and net-working capital to net assets with liquidity risk in Islamic banks. In addition return on assets (ROE) in Islamic banks is found to be positive and significant with liquidity risk at 10% significant level. A study over determinants of Jordanian Islamic banks profitabilit y revealed that there are significant and positive relationship between Return on Assets and Provision for Credit Facilities + Interest in Suspense / Credit Facilities, Total Equity / Total Assets and Total Income / Total Asset of the Islamic banking, and there are significant and negative relationship between ROA and the Bank Size, Total Liabilities / Total Assets, Annual Growth Rate for Gross domestic product, Inflation Rate and Exchange Rate of the Islamic Banking. Also this study found that there are significant and positive relationship between Return on Equity and Log TA, TL / TA, TI /TA and ERS of the Islamic banking, and there are significant and negative relationship between ROE and PRFCFI / CF, TE / TA, GDPGR and INF of the Islamic Banking (Khrawish, Siam and Khrawish, 2011). Naceur and Goaied (2010) investigation regarding the determinants of the Tunisian banks performances during the period 1980-1995 showed that the principal determinants of a banks performance are by order of importance: labor productivity, bank portfolio composition, capital productivity and bank capitalization. Athanasoglou, Delis and Staikouras (2008) examined the profitability behavior of bank-specific, industry-related and macroeconomic determinants, using an unbalanced panel dataset of South Eastern European (SEE) credit institutions over the period 1998-2002. The estimation results indicated that, with the exception of liquidity, all bank-specific determinants significantly affect bank profitability in the anticipated way. The paper concludes with some remarks on the practicality and implements ability of the findings. Using bank level data for 80 countries in the 1988-1995 periods, a study suggested that interest margins differences and banks profitability reflect a variety of determinants such as; bank characteristics, macroeconomic conditions, explicit and implicit bank taxation, deposit insurance regulation, overall financial structure, and several underlying lega l and institutional indicators (Demirgà ¼Ãƒ §-Kunt and Huizinga, 1998). Shahchera (2012) analyzed the impact of liquid asset holdings on bank profitability for a sample of Iranian banks. Applying the Generalized Method of Moment (GMM), this study analyzed the profitability of listed banks using unbalanced panel data over the period of 2002-2009. An important finding of this study is that the business cycle significantly affects bank profits. The coefficient of regulation is negative and significant. Therefore if regulators reduce the constraints imposed on banks, banks obtain profit. Liquidity is of vital importance to the daily operations of a bank. Maintenance of a sound liquidity position of the bank is necessary to protect the bank against uncertainties of its business. Maintenance of liquidity bears both risk and return. A tradeoff between these two elements can minimize the conflict between liquidity versus profitability of a bank (Islam, 2008). As stated by Islam (2008) K och (1992) believed that there is a short-run tradeoff between liquidity and profitability. The more liquid a bank is, the lower are its return on equity (ROE) and return on assets (ROA), all other things being equal. Therefore, statistical significance of liquidity on profitability can be a great factor for potential investors. In a nutshell the influence of Islamic banks liquidity cannot be negligible when considering profit as their most vigorous concern. Methodology 3.1 Sample Design and Data Collection In Bangladesh, currently seven Islamic banks are providing their services as pure Islamic banks and running their operations under the guidance of Islamic Shariah. Among them, five Islamic banks have been selected to investigate the impact of Islamic banks liquidity risk on profitability over the period of 11 years during 2001 to 2011.  [2]  Selected Islamic banks are- 1. Islami Bank Bangladesh Limited 2. Shahjalal Islami Bank Limited 3. Al-Arafah Islami Bank Limited 4. Export Import Bank of Bangladesh Limited 5. Social Islami Bank Limited The data used in this study are compiled from income statements and balance sheets of selected banks from their each year annual report. The study model is tested on time series cross-sectional bank level data in the context of Bangladesh over the period 2001 to 2011. Thus, present study has been conducted taking into account a total samples of [5ÃÆ'Æ’-11] 55 under each variable. 3.2 Explanatory Variables To analyze the liquidity impact on profitability using multiple regression analysis, variables were assigned into two sections- Dependent Variables: Return on Assets = Net Income after Taxes / Total Assets Return on Equity = Net Income after Taxes / Total Equity Capital Account Return on Deposits = Net Income after Taxes / Total Deposits Independent Variables: Cash Due from Banks to Total Assets = Cash Due from Banks / Total Assets Cash Due from Banks to Total Deposits = Cash Due from Banks / Total Deposits Investment (Loans Advances) to Total Assets = Investment / Total Assets Investment (Loans Advances) to Total Deposits = Investment / Total Deposits 3.3 Research Model and Hypotheses The current research is being conducted to evaluate the impact of liquidity on profitability by applying multiple linear regression model which had previously been developed and applied by Demirgà ¼Ãƒ §-Kunt and Huizinga (1999), Haron (2004), Athanasoglou, Delis and Staikouras (2008), Toni (2008), Naceur and Goaied (2008), Saleem and Rehman (2011), Khrawish, Siam and Khrawish (2011), Shahchera (2012) and many more in essence of their contribution to banking, economics and finance. Utilizing the similar model these preceding studies focused on assessing diverse determinants of Islamic banks profitability. Present study used the same model but for only to strengthening on liquidity variables in order to demonstrate their impact on profitability. Current research model is as follows- Where, ROA = Return on assets ROE = Return on equity ROD = Return on deposits CDTA = Cash due from banks to total assets CDDEP = Cash due from banks to total deposits INVSTA = Inve stment (loans advances) to total assets INVSDEP = Investment (loans advances) to total deposits ÃÆ'†°Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å" = constant term ÃÆ' ¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ µÃƒâ€šÃ‚ ¦ = slopes associated with the independent (liquidity) variables i = banks t = time ÃÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã… ¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ¬ = error term To do the analysis following two hypotheses were designed: There is an insignificant relationship between liquidity and profitability, i.e. H0: b1 = b2 = b3 = b4 = 0 (null hypothesis) There is a significant relationship between liquidity and profitability, i.e. Ha: b1 ÃÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ °Ãƒâ€šÃ‚   b2 ÃÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ °Ãƒâ€šÃ‚   b3 ÃÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ °Ãƒâ€šÃ‚   b4 ÃÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ °Ãƒâ€šÃ‚   0 (alternative hypothesis) 4 Statistical Results and Analyses The statistical analysis of secondary data has been divided into three dimensions, i.e. descriptive, correlation and regression. All the statistical tests have been performed through SPSS V15.0. 4.1 Descriptive Statistics Table 1 shows descriptive statistics for dependent and independent variables. The analyzed statistics figures illustrate the mean, standard deviation, maximum and minimum values of Islamic banks. The statistics suggest irregular drawbacks in minimum value of ROA ROD, even more in ROE, leading to a dramatic decrease in percentage return for overall Islamic banking industry.  [3]  The mean value of dependent variables imply that maximum portion of banks income goes for shareholders, as here ROE indicates greater outcome in percentage return in comparisons to ROA or ROD. However, according to the statistics, the fraction of investment in total assets and total deposits exceeds cash due from banks to a great extent if we take a look at their mean values. Table 1 Descriptive Statistics Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation Dependent Variable ROA -4.85 3.07 1.2060 1.05572 ROE -176.07 38.81 15.8591 27.86636 ROD -5.20 3.66 1.4722 1.22965 Independent Variable CDTA 9.94 82.12 21.4307 12.59587 CDDEP 11.62 95.43 25.3715 14.06618 INVSTA 13.33 82.51 70.2224 11.45243 INVSDEP 15.49 103.86 84.2804 15.55431 Source: Calculated value using Annual Reports of the banks issued by Dhaka Stock Exchange (2001-2011) 4.2 Correlation Matrix The correlation coefficients are stated in Table 2. This gives information on the degree of correlation between all the dependent (profitability) and independent (liquidity) variables used in the analysis. The opportunity has been tested with the Pearson correlation coefficients test. The result indicates that the liquidity variables CDTA and CDDEP are negatively related with all selected profitability variables. On the other hand, the remaining two liquidity variables INVSTA and INVSDEP are positively related with all three profitability variables. Table 2 Correlation Matrix of Profitability and Liquidity Variables ROA ROE ROD CDTA CDDEP INVSTA INVSDEP ROA 1 ROE .905** 1 ROD .994** .867** 1 CDTA -.232 -.062 -.260 1 CDDEP -.206 -.048 -.226 .993** 1 INVSTA .222 .037 .252 -.945** -.936** 1 INVSDEP .326* .115 .376** -.896** -.856** .950** 1 Pearson Correlation Coefficient ** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed) * Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed) Source: Calculated value using Annual Reports of the banks issued by Dhaka Stock Exchange (2001-2011) 4.3 Regression Results Tables 3, Table 4 Table 5 report the results of regression analysis in which four independent variables are regressed by using the data of Islamic banks of Bangladesh from 2001 to 2011. The adjusted value of R squares indicate that ROA, ROE and ROD of Islamic banks of Bangladesh are respectively 17.1%, 4.5% and 24.6% dependent on independent variables, i.e. CDTA, CDDEP, INVSTA and INVSDEP. Therefore, as liquidity factor, these four variables are considered major issues to defining profitability of Islamic banks in Bangladesh over eleven years period. Table 3 Regression Results of ROA (2001-2011) Model 1 Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients t Sig. B Std. Error Beta (Constant) 2.125 3.118 .681 .499 CDTA .293 .186 3.502 1.576 .121 CDDEP -.274 .161 -3.652 -1.699 .096* INVSTA -.194 .074 -2.110 -2.630 .011** INVSDEP .159 .054 2.343 2.948 .005*** R squared .233 Adjusted R squared .171 F statistics esults 3.792 P-value .009*** Durbin-Watson 1.635 *** Significant at the 1% level ** Significant at the 5% level *Significant at the 10% level Source: Calculated value using Annual Reports of the banks issued by Dhaka Stock Exchange (2001-2011) According to the regression results as specified in Table 3, CDTA and INVSDEP are positively correlated with ROA. Alternatively CDDEP and INVSTA show negative relationship with ROA. With an exception to CDTA; rest independent variables CDDEP, INVSTA and INVSDEP are significantly correlated with ROA at 10%, 5% and 1% significant level in that order. Durbin-Watson test shows that the residuals are positively correlated. At overall 1% significant level as per p-value the liquidity model [Model 1] is significantly correlated with ROA. So the null hypothesis (H0) is rejected and alternative hypothesis (Ha) accepted here. Table 4 Regression Results of ROE (2001-2011) Model 2 Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients t Sig. B Std. Error Beta (Constant) 77.929 88.349 .882 .382 CDTA 7.326 5.277 3.312 1.388 .171 CDDEP -6.960 4.571 -3.513 -1.523 .134 INVSTA -4.796 2.096 -1.971 -2.289 .026** INVSDEP 3.492 1.528 1.949 2.285 .027** R squared .116 Adjusted R squared .045 F statistics 1.637 P-value .180 Durbin-Watson 2.024 *** Significant at the 1% level ** Significant at the 5% level * Significant at the 10% level Source: Calculated value using Annual Reports of the banks issued by Dhaka Stock Exchange (2001-2011) Table 4 represents that CDTA and INVSDEP are positively correlated with ROE. At the same time CDDEP and INVSTA create negative correlation with ROE. Here, only INVSTA and INVSDEP are found significant with ROE at 5% significant level. As Durbin-Watson statistic is approximately very close to 2, therefore the residuals are uncorrelated. However, according to p-value the overall liquidity model [Model 2] is not significantly related with ROE at any formulated level. Thus the null hypothesis (H0) is accepted for the relationship of liquidity and profitability (ROE). Table 5 Regression Results of ROD (2001-2011) Model 3 Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients t Sig. B Std. Error Beta (Constant) 2.433 3.464 .702 .486 CDTA .340 .207 3.480 1.642 .107 CDDEP -.317 .179 -3.631 -1.771 .083* INVSTA -.245 .082 -2.284 -2.985 .004*** INVSDEP .202 .060 2.557 3.373 .001*** R squared .302 Adjusted R squared .246 F statistics 5.404 P-value .001*** Durbin-Watson 1.599 *** Significant at the 1% level ** Significant at the 5% level * Significant at the 10% level Source: Calculated value using Annual Reports of the banks issued by Dhaka Stock Exchange (2001-2011) As demonstrated in Table 5 ROD has positive relation with CDTA and INVSDEP, and negative relation with CDDEP and INVSTA. Here, only insignificant variable is CDTA. CDDEP is significantly related with ROD at 10% level. At 1% significant level both liquidity variables INVSTA and INVSDEP are detected statistically significant with ROD. Durbin-Watson test indicates positive autocorrelation for the residuals. As per p-value the model [Model 3] is statistically significant with ROD at 1% significant level. As a result here the null hypothesis (H0) is rejected and alternative hypothesis (Ha) accepted. 5 Conclusion The current study marks the very first attempt to analyze liquidity impact on Islamic banks profitability in Bangladesh during the period 2001 to 2011. Major parts of the study results reveal greater dependency of banks profitability on liquidity. Specifically cash due from banks to total assets is not significant with any profitability variables. Cash due from banks to total deposits is found insignificant with ROE, but significant with ROA and ROD at 10% significant level. Other two independent variables investment to total assets and investment to total deposits are individually and significantly correlated with all selected profitability variables. Investment to total assets is significant with ROA and ROE at 5% significant level and with ROD at 1% significant level. On the other hand, investment to total deposits is significantly correlated with ROA and ROD at 1% significant level and with ROE at 5% significant level. The entire liquidity model is found statistically signifi cant with ROA and ROD at 1% significant level. The reason to discover ROE less dependent and insignificant with the overall liquidity model is possibly due to that huge loss in foreign transaction by Shahjalal Islami Bank Limited in the financial year 2004. However, adding further liquidity variable to the model may make it more or less significant with profitability. In addition, it should also be said that liquidity is not the single reason to defining Islamic banks profitability. Therefore, in any affair, current study serves as initial movement, leaving spaces for future researches to enhance and enrich its outlook.

Friday, May 15, 2020

Balance Between Sense and Sensibility in Jane Austens...

Balance Between Sense and Sensibility in Jane Austens Northanger Abbey Throughout her novel, Northanger Abbey, Jane Austen integrates parody with characterization to emphasize the necessity of a balance between sense and sensibility while reflecting a theme of the initiation of a young woman into the complexities of adult social life. This novel can be traced back as one of Jane Austens earliest works. It was written in 1798, but not published until 1818, and is an excellent example of what Austen believed a novel should not be. In the work Jane Austens Novels Social Change and Literary Form, Julia Prewitt Brown states The evident purpose of Northanger Abbey is to burlesque the popular fiction of her day, to carry its conventions†¦show more content†¦The first paragraph of the first chapter in the novel uses subtle Irony to depict to the reader what Catherine Moorland was not. Catherine was not a girl with extraordinary beauty and ability of a classic romantic heroine, but an ordinary girl who may possibly lack extraordinary beauty and ability. In the novel, Catherine travels to Bath where she comes into contact with silly and tasteless people, the Thorpes. This contrast makes Catherine shine brighter. Catherine also comes into contact with the Tilneys, who were educated, well-bred people with a sense of humor. Their influence helps Catherine to develop into a sensible character, relieved of romantic notions, to become a charming wife for Henry Tilney. Upon introduction in the novel, Catherine Moorland reflects a character that epitomizes the characteristic of sensibility. In the 19th century sensibility was a characteristic based on imagination, fantasy, innocence, passion, and creative thinking. The conventions of the gothic novel overlap, in all its forms, with sensibility, in part because it concerns a suffering protagonist. In this novel Catherines confusion of the world of romance with the everyday world begins innocently and is the cause of her suffering. To relieve her suffering and become a mature adult Catherine must learn to distinguish between illusion and reality, to be aware that the imagination has the power to enforce its own slanted vision upon the world. Through a series of interactions withShow MoreRelatedJane Austen And The Golden Mean2893 Words   |  12 PagesCamila Hernandez Mrs. Izquierdo English 10 Per.3 26 February 2015 Jane Austen and The Golden Mean One of the most famous authors of the Regency period, Jane Austen, the novelist whom wrote Sense and Sensibility and many other novels, made a splash in the literature world for women. Being a woman was very difficult during the Regency period and women were not treated as equals to men. In the novel, Sense and Sensibility, Jane Austen shows the strength of women and how even when all the odds areRead MoreManners in Pride and Prejudice by Jane Austen3437 Words   |  14 Pages Pride and Prejudice Jane Austens Pride and Prejudice not only established her historical importance among scholars and critics, but continues to remain popular. Pride and Prejudice, a comedy of manners, was published in 1813, and is a staple of the English literature. It recreates the social world of the landed gentry of early 19th-century England and embodies the theme that preconceptions and egotism can overcome true love. Pride and Prejudice is somewhat autobiographical; emphasizes the key elements

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Comparative Method Moving Beyond Qualitative And...

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Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Movie Messsages Night Mail and Drifters Essay Example For Students

Movie Messsages Night Mail and Drifters Essay What message does John Grierson want to transmit in his films Night Mail and Drifters? John Grierson (1898-1972) was a British intellectual who believed in the political role of the artist and emphasized social purpose through the creation of documentary films. Grierson is considered to be the father of documentary film. I am going to discuss two of his films: Night Mail (1930) and Drifters (1929). Night Mail is one of a number of films associated with his work, who led a group including Basil Wright, Stuart Legg, Paul Rotha and Arthur Elton. Night Mail was the first of its kind in terms of Short Film with documentary styling. The film promoted a government agency, the GPO that was a monopoly that covered mail and telegraphs as well as other new electronic systems linked to defense and national security. The GPO film unit made documentaries to promote British industry to the British public. The film was under the direction of Basil Wright and Harry Watt working with John Grierson as a producer. The film documents the struggle and processes gone through by the Royal Mail Train Delivery service that travels from London to Scotland in the 1930s. Night Mail is a propagandistic film that looks at various things such as the way the post was sorted, dropped and collected from various places by catching the bags at high speeds in retracting net and the teamwork spirit of the post office employees. The journey that the train does provides the narrative structure of the film and the places that the train passes through are used to construct a particular representation of Britain. However, in what the film seems more interested about is in persuading and promoting the ideas of the government. The film is trying to show us how reliable the mail delivery is as it can deliver the mail on time, how powerful and useful the service is and how caring the government employees who do their task are. Night Mail is a didactic, inspirational and propagandistic documentary with the intention of revealing and informing about how efficient the government employees are. It uses propaganda techniques in a more indirect way than the audience might have expected. The train works in both a political and social function. The film focuses on the skill of workers and the importance of their role for maintaining Britains success as a world power. Through the shots of the trains carrying the post overnight and their arrival in different cities as well as the hard work of the workers doing their best to process the mail on time, Grierson invites the audience into the realistic representation of the postal service working class and their dedication towards the British nation. A completely proud positive statement is made in this film about working life in Industrial Britain and its achieved through the union of poetry and realism. Night Mail starts with a voiceover commentary describing how the mail is collected. Then, as the train continues with its journey, we can see the different railway stations at which it stops to collect and drop the mail. Grierson explains every meaning of the postal service to the audience showing various scenes like the bags of mail exiting and entering the train. The characters of the film had a scripted dialog and they communicated with each other which add to its nature of being a film that pushes for a social issue to influence its viewers. In this film Grierson wants to present the working class as heroes, he doesnt show much about the characters personality and hides their personal lives (how much they earn, how they eat or how they live) and this just makes the audience realize that whats important in this film is not the workers lives but the dedication they have towards Great Britain, and thats what Grierson wants the vital message for the film to be. This short documentary wants to impress its viewers and influence them into thinking of the industry as strong and well positioned to be a world power. It doesnt happen by accident, films are designed to have effects on viewers ? (Bordwell and Thompson, 2008). The audience never gets to see the commentator but he is present through the whole film. The narrative is unique and the voiceover tries to tell to the audience exactly what journey the train does and how the workers do a great job collecting and sorting out the mail, the images on the screen therefore just emphasize the narrative. Actors Chinedu Ikedieze and Osita Iheme EssayThe editing of this film consists of various individually filmed shots that when they are put together produce a coherent story creating a montage or a sequence. What I find that is special about this documentary it is not just the realism of the events happening in the images, but the way the footage is put together and how it creates something fascinating. Grierson puts together effective montages that cut between the pulse of the boats machinery, the hard work of the fishermen doing their job and the bad weather that doesnt help with the fishing. The film doesnt have any tension or drama but it has a beauty in its imagery that makes it hard to look away from. Because of the constant focus on machines and Industrial Britain, Grierson clearly sides with modernity. However, the shots keep jumping back and forth between the fisherman that are struggling with the weight of the nets, the instruments going all over the place and with uncompromising weather shows that his feelings about modernity are ambivalent and all combined it shows the audience the fantastic relation between man and nature. I find that the film is a bit slow and I think that theres a frequent repetition of various shots that theres no point in having, for example the shot where you can only see the fishermans legs and boots going down the stairs in the boat, I find that the shot shouldnt be repeated so often. Grierson doesnt show much about any of the crew members and I think he could of made the film more interesting by showing a bit more of them, especially of the captain of the boat who lies awake at night and the cabin boy who is learning how to cook for all the fishermen. These two characters seem to have natural and strong personalities that Grierson should have taken advantage of and would have made the film more interesting to the audience because the result of the film is not entirely satisfying. However, apart from the film being a bit to slow, I think that the film is shot and edited in a very artistic way and I especially like the close up shots of the fishes and the seagulls following the boat. I think that the film offers the viewer a different kind of visual pleasure that shows the directors commitment to experimentation with form. The narrative of the documentary allows the audience to get close to the fisherman in order to observe their unseen activities. In this film Grierson shows the fascination that he has for the natural world: for the fisherman and for the seagulls, for the weather changes and for their strange moods and untold stories. I think one of the best scenes of this documentary and the one that makes the film stand out is the fishing scene where the small boat and the sailors have a showdown with the dangerous North Atlantic ocean. In conclusion, I think that Grierson makes it very clear to the audience what the message he wants to transmit in his films. What Grierson seems more interested about his films is in persuading and promoting an idea of the government and showing the audience the dedication of the working class towards the British nation. He presents the working class as heroes and he purposely hides the characters personality and their personal lives making the audience realize that whats important in his film is the dedication that the workers have towards Great Britain. A completely proud and positive statement is shown in both of the films about the working life in Industrial Britain and how useful and caring the government employees who do their task are. Griersons films have a constant focus on machine parts and industrial Britain and this shows us how he clearly sides with modernity. Both films have an artistic style and they both use a lot of close up shots and point of view shots. I think overall that the visual imagery in both films is fascinating and shows how Grierson was a master of his trade. Bibliography: Bordwell, D and Thompson, K (2008) Film Art: An Introduction, Eighth Edition: University of Wisonsin. Nichols, Introduction to Documentary. http://www.griersontrust.org/john-grierson.html http://books.google.es/books?id=YmdwyztGND0Cpg=PA39dq=grierson+night+mailhl=essa=Xei=cVMAVKKIHLKB7QbMr4GoCQved=0CG8Q6AEwCQ#v=onepageq=grierson night mailf=false http://books.google.es/books?id=Rt0Wwjs4zyYCpg=PA80lpg=PA80dq=drifters+flahertysource=blots=E3Up137nXjsig=wc517yCLoH8IjY2-Sji2k0IcEBkhl=essa=Xei=31sAVIHWKsblaKn_grAIved=0CEQQ6AEwBDgK#v=onepageq=drifters flahertyf=false

Monday, April 13, 2020

Standing Ground by Ursula Le Guin Essay Example

Standing Ground by Ursula Le Guin Essay Gun bases most of her stories and novels on her beliefs and disbelief. She is an atheist and relies more on philosophy than religion. Perhaps that Is why Standing Ground, a story that deals with abortion, was written with no objectivity. Lee Gull had no religious beliefs Interfering with her Intended theme. Many of her stories are based on Taoism, where there Is good In every evil and evil In every good. In her writings, Lee Gull addresses enduring human problems. She also likes to write about children and their search for identity. Lee Gun lives that to become an adult, an individual must find ways of realizing the great potential in the unknown (Heeler 1451). Standing Ground is about a girl who has been thrust into the unknown world of adulthood. She encounters many obstacles but tries to find the good in them. Therefore, by Lee Guns standards, this girl is not a girl at all; she is a woman. Thus the story suggest that maturity does not always come with age; sometimes a child is forced to be an adult and serve as the only source of loving care and support. We will write a custom essay sample on Standing Ground by Ursula Le Guin specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Standing Ground by Ursula Le Guin specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Standing Ground by Ursula Le Guin specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer The plot of this story Is about one girls struggle to overcome the categorization of Ewing young, while at the same time helping her brain damaged mother get an abortion. The story opens mid-afternoon, as the two mall characters, Delaware and Share,approach an abortion clinic. Standing outside the clinic are Mary and Norman, two profile demonstrators who assume that Delaware, because of her age, is having the abortion. In the midst of their chanting and sign waving Norman grazes Delaware should with his sign; this is an invasion of privacy that Delaware battles throughout the story. Once inside the clinic, the receptionist, as well as two nurses, also assumes that Delaware is the one who is pregnant and talk to her as if she were a child. Sere begins to day dream in the waiting room. At this point, the reader find out that Delaware is Shares daughter, that Share is brain damaged, and that Share is pregnant due to date rape. After battling many age related assumptions and obstacles, Delaware helps her mother through the abortion only to have her mother refer to her as a baby. Outside, Mary and Norman share their views on abortion. They later have a child like argument which proves them to be Immature. As an adolescent, Delaware has been forced to mature at an early age. She has faced many common problems of growing up. On a daily basis Delaware has to fight to be taken seriously as an adult. This is shown throughout the story as the employees in the clinic talk to her in a child like tone. Through all of this, Delaware must also try and make plans to attend college. During a conversation in the waiting room, the nurse asks Delaware if she plans on attending college. After a thoughtful pause, Delaware admits to the nurse that she would like to. However, in the back of re mind Delaware knows that she will probably never go to college because she must stay take care of her mother. It is the constant care of her mother that causes Delaware to face a slew of adult problems as well. It was Delaware who made all of the necessary appointments for Share to get her abortion. During the ordeal of the abortion, she had to deal with Insurance and finance, as well as translating the doctors technical talk about the procedure into terms that Share could understand. Delaware Is not nappy Walt near Tie, out NAS Tuna somewhat AT a Dalliance AT ten g and bad that she faces and accepts it. Clue notes that Just as in Lee Guns other writings, this is the sign of true maturity (572). Other than recognizing the balance between what she wants and what she has, Delaware also exhibits many other common characteristics of a grown adult. While dealing with Share, Delaware has what seems to be infinite patience. For example, the clinic workers repeatedly mistake Delaware for the patient. Every time Delaware calmly states otherwise. Any other adolescent would have raised their voice, but Delaware remained patient throughout. She also exhibits an amazing sense of understanding when De inning with Share. Delaware feels strange and sad about her mother and her lack of seriousness for the situation (71). It is extremely hard for Delaware to remain ready to handle the situation when Share, do to her brain damage, is always in somewhat of a playful mood. Heeler has noticed that Lee Gun often uses the protagonists conscience to help guide them through hard times (1451). Perhaps it is Delaware conscience which guides her and gives her this uncanny sense of understanding. Lastly, Delaware is mature enough to recognize her limits. When the doctor asks Delaware to allow him perform the tuba legation, he realizes that this decision is much to important to make on her own. Heeler has also written of Lee Guns belief that both the pop dive and negative choices must be maintained to suspend an identity (1451). At her young age, Delaware is somehow aware of this and is able to make what the doctor views as a negative decision with no remorse. All of these traits help reinforce the controlling idea that Delaware is remarkably mature regardless of her age. Delaware faces two main antagonist while helping her mother. One of which is the pair of closed minded profile demonstrators. Mary and Norman are extremely radar antagonist to overcome because they feel that they are inalienably right. Mary even goes as far as saying this is a war and we are the army of right (67). Their presence alone causes Delaware a great deal of stress. With their wild chanting and sign swinging, Mary and Norman make a difficult situation even harder for Delaware. The contact that Normals sign makes with her shoulder haunts Delaware the entire story. It did not do any great physical damage to her, but caused her serious mental anguish. Delaware puts up a strong facade to help her believe that she is not weak. On the inside, she is scared of all that is happening. In Delaware world, her conscience and privacy are all that she has left to hold onto. When Normals sign grazed her shoulder, he invaded her privacy and therefore caused Delaware to feel as if he had left scratch on her soul. According to Boiler, Lee Gun believes that sometimes when we seek to improve the world, we do more harm than good (1064). Norman and Mary are a perfect example of this. Blinded by their ambitions to improve the world, they do not stop to think about the possibility that they are arming an innocent girl. Another antagonist that Delaware has to overcome is her young age. Although her age is never stated, it is said that Delaware is still in high school. Most students of the high school age are irresponsible and reckless. They feel that they are super m an and that nothing can hurt them. This is the preconceived notion that the demonstrators and the clinic workers have about Delaware. Every adult that Delaware Interacts Witt In ten story assumes Tanat seen was Irresponsible, mace a reckless decision w h a boy, and is now pregnant. These assumptions not only anger Delaware, but hurt her as well. Little do these adults realize that she is here to support her mother, nor do they bother to find out before assuming. Delaware true strength and mature y shines through every time she calmly lets others know that it is Share who is pregnant. After finding out that they were mistaken, not a single adult is mature enough to apologize. Furthermore, they continue to talk to Delaware as if she is a chi . Heeler notes on Lee Gun that in order to become an adult, one must find ways of realizing the potential of the unknown (1451). Neither he demonstrators nor the clinic workers took into consideration the unknown possibly that Delaware was there for reasons other than a bad decision. Delaware faces the unknown on a daily basis while caring for Share; thus by Lee Guns standards, she is the only true adult in the story, and therefore stronger that any antagonist that she faces. There are two key scenes which help the reader to fully understand two of the main characters and how they each affect Delaware. The first is the scene in which Norman vividly describes what he believes takes place during an abortion. He thinks hat e girls are strapped down and gassed. He pictures that the doctors spread her legs and pry and pull until the fetus, or he, finally comes out. Norman also believes that the doctors poke at him with sharp tools. They cause the woman to bleed and non and grit her teeth. They use their knives to pull him out, lifeless, limp, and dead. (69) This description gives the reader an idea how truly close minded Norman is. He has dedicated his life to the fight against abortion and yet he knows onto g about it. Norman has created a primal and annalistic myth about abortion which alps him to hate those who are involved. Norman is a perfect example of Lee Guns belief that an insecure being will manifest primal myths to compensate for reality (Sc tiger 355). He is a close minded old man who believes in nothing except for the fact that he is inherently right in his fight for life. According to Lee Gun, one becomes an adult when they stop projecting evil images upon others (Heeler 1451). This s en shows that Norman, a man in his fifties, projects evil on anyone who has to do with abortion. By Lee Guns standards, Norman is nothing more than a child. This ascription of the butcher shop shows that Norman, even though extremely immature, is difficult character for Delaware to overcome. The second key scene is Shares day dream. In the day dream, the reader gains an insight into Shares mind; furthermore, they gain an insight to what Delaware must put up with on a daily basis. From the start of this scene, it is immediately vivo that Share has the mind set of a child. First, she explains her feelings about Delaware. She talks of how sometimes Delaware acts like the momma and thinks she knows everything. She also says despite that, Share loves her deeply. Through such d corruption in the scene the reader becomes aware of the unbreakable bond that Share and Delaware have. This bond Justifies any questions of why Delaware has given up a normal life to care for her mother; for the first time, Delaware reasoning for her sections is made clear. During the scene, Share also states that she is brain damaged. She describes her special class and how her teacher talks to her. Even though Share is unaware, the teachers tone is amiable and child like. The reader now NAS n Idea AT now snare must De treated Ana want Delaware NAS to endure while caring for her mother. Both of these scenes help to further understand Share and Norman, two of the main characters that Delaware interacts with. There are two separate climaxes in this story. The first, is the final argument between Mary and Norman. Throughout the story, they have both kept their thoughts about each other to themselves. Each has their own reasons for protesting, however they o not feel that the other has the merit to be there. In this final argument, they take turns screaming at one another. Mary tries to scare Norman away by threatening to tell the director of the organization on him. Norman spends by standing in the y of Mars path. In the beginning of the story, they both were portrayed as adults. In the final argument, they are reduced to smelling little children arguing over a piece of candy. At the climax, Norman and Mary find themselves exactly where they Egan; they have found no resolution, and are fighting once again with their eyes shut for a cause that they know little about. The second climax is when Delaware comes to see her mother after the abortion. Although she looked like a child tucked into bed, Share looks at Delaware and says the last line of the story: Hi baby (79). After all that Delaware has struggled thru GHz to help Share, she is still referred to as a child. This is a dramatic ending considering that now Delaware has been referred to as a child by every adult she has interacted with including Share. Delaware now realizes that despite all that she as files to care for Share, the world will forever view her as a child until she is older. The experience at the clinic has not affected Share a great deal, but it will take Delaware time to mentally conquer all that she faced during that day. There I no resolution for Delaware. She knows that the next day will be the same. She will still have to be a mother to her mother. Heeler notes that Lee Guns protagonist often must face many perennial human problems until they find happiness (1450). As e story ends, Delaware is fully aware that she will have to face many more such enduring problems before society will consider her an adult. Lee Gun incorporates a variety of literary devices into this story. She foreshadows the mistake that will commonly be made when early in the story, Mary insinuates that Delaware is the one having the baby. Mary does so in such a dramatic mannerism the it is obvious the mistake will be made again. Lee Gun also utilizes sensory imagery when Share is comparing the two pregnancies. She describes Delaware as something soft inside of me that I knew was mine(72). The reader can almost feel what it is eke to be pregnant. There is also some light comedic relief in this otherwise serious story. A somewhat comical scene occurs when Share reminds Delaware dont curse; for a split second, the roles are reversed and Share is once again the mother. Other comical scene is when Share, while sitting in the waiting room, begins a discussion with herself about what kind of ice-cream she likes the best. It is through these devices that Lee Gun makes the story more tangible for the reader. Delaware never chose to be put into her situation with Share. She did not volunteer. She faces the unknown everyday while taking care of her mother. Not by choice, but by a mandate from life. Delaware has been given circumstances to live with. SSH has done so and made the best of it. This is the sign off true adult. As Delaware has shown throughout the story, maturity does not always come with age; sometimes a canon Is Trace to De an adult Ana serve as and support. ten only source AT loving care

Wednesday, March 11, 2020

Pili de-Shelling Machine(Unfinished) Essays

Pili de-Shelling Machine(Unfinished) Essays Pili de-Shelling Machine(Unfinished) Essay Pili de-Shelling Machine(Unfinished) Essay United State of America, p. 3 The New Lexicon Webster Dictionary Vol. 2, Lexicon Publication Inc. , United State Of America, p. 762 Chapter 2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES This chapter presents the review of related literature and studies which were gathered from books and other references including the internet in order to shed lights on areas that need enrichment and to give readers proper background of the present study being conducted. Included in this chapter is the synthesis of the state-of-the-art, theoretical and conceptual framework of the study. Related Literature The Pili nut (Canariumovatum), one of 600 species in the family Burseraceae, is native to the Philippines and is abundant and wild in the Bicol Region particularly in Sorsogon, and in parts of Visayas and Mindanao. Trees of Canariumovatum are attractive symmetrically shaped evergreens, averaging 20 m tall with resinous wood and resistance to strong wind. C. ovatum is dioecious, with flowers borne on cymose inflorescence at the leaf axils of young shoots. As in papaya and rambutan, functional hermaphrodites exist in pili. Pollination is by insects. Flowering of pili is frequent and fruits ripen through a prolonged period of time. The ovary contains three locules, each with two ovules, most of the time only one ovule develops (Chandler 1958). (en. wikipedia. org) Fruit is a drupe, 4 to 7 cm long, 2. 3 to 3. cm in diameter, and weight 15. 7 to 45. 7 g. The skin (exocarp) is smooth, thin, shiny, and turns purplish black as the fruit ripens. Much of the kernel weight is made up of the cotyledons, which are about 4. 1 to 16. 6% of the whole fruit; it is composed of approximately 8% carbohydrate, 11. 5 to 13. 9% protein, and 70% fat. (www. hort. purdue. edu) Pili nut kernel is the most important produ ct. When raw, it resembles the flavor of roasted pumpkin seed, and when roasted, its mild, nutty flavor and tender-crispy texture is superior to that of the almond. Pili kernel is also used in chocolate, icecream, and baked goods. The edible light-yellow color oil from the kernel is comparable in quality to that of olive oil, containing 59. 6% oleic glycerides and 38. 2% palmitic glycerides. The largest buyers of pili nuts are in Hong Kong and Taiwan, the kernel is one of the major ingredients in one type of the famous Chinese festive desserts known as the moon cake. (www. hort. purdue. edu en. wikipedia. org) From Christian B. de Guzman, the Philippines is the only country that produces and processes pili in commercial quantity (Coronel, 1978) and has the monopoly of processed pili in the foreign market. Bicol Region is known for its pili candies and confectioneries which are sold in different product forms and in various packaging containers. These products are exported to Australia, Guam, Canada, Japan, Hongkong, China, UK, Korea, Singapore, Hawaii, Germany, France and the United States. (www. pinoybisnes. com) Pili nut is a minor crop produced only in the Philippines. The bulk of the raw nuts are supplied from wild stands in the mountains around Sorsogon, Albay and Camarines Sur in the Bicol region. Pili nut has the potential to become a major nut crop. Improvement of nd knowledge in efficient vegetative propagation, ecological and cultural requirements of pili as a commercial crop, and the mechanization for commercial processing are needed. Related Study In the study of Ojolo and Ogunsina (2009), they developed a prototype machine to crack roasted cashew nuts. It is a box like machine that has a hinged and spring-loaded mild steel cracking lid with grooves to hold a cast aluminum feeding tray which has machined to hold 25 nuts at a time. The nuts get cracked by the impact of the lid against the feeding tray. The lid provides for a minimum clearance from the feeding ray on which nuts are preloaded; this prevents the applied force from being in excess of the required cracking force. The machine was tested with various cashew nut sizes and placement orientations. The percentage of whole kernels produce was 66. 66%. The capacity of the machine was estimated to be about 18. 3 kg/hr. Another study is headed by Engr. Arnulfo P. Malinis (2009), it is entitled â€Å"Pili Nut Cracker Goes High-tech†. The Bicol University college of Agriculture and Forestry (BUCAF) in collaborator with the Department of Agriculture-Bureau of Postharvest Research and Extension (DA-BPRE), Tropics Agro-Industries (KOLBI) and DA-Regional Field Unit (RFU) 5 developed the latest mechanical pili nut cracker because of the need for appropriate tools and equipment in processing pili nut. The prototype was consisted of six-blade cracker powered by a 1 Hp electric motor. The motor’s energy consumption is 0. 41 kW-hr. The machine consists of fine major parts: the cracking unit, conveying unit, stand/frame, transmission, and prime mover. The prototype was tested using three major parameters: cracking capacity, the cracking efficiency and economic viability. Technology verification of the prototype showed that on the average, it can crack 204 pieces of pili nut in a minute (117 kg/hr) with a cracking efficiency averaging 93% with 89% whole kernel recovery. It is one-man operated machine that could crack bags of dried pili nuts. For eight hours a day, the simple machine could crack 16 bags of dried nuts. To produce the machine an outlay amounting to 40,000 php is needed and they guaranteed that the return of investment is 53% after more than a year of use. Synthesis of the State-of-the-Art The development of the mechanical pili nut cracker is somehow similar to the present study since the researchers aimed to make improvement as to create a possibility of including a motor powered pili de-shilling machine for future research. However, they differ especially in terms of capability and speed, the only advantage of the present study is that: because of being simple of the propose machine, it is easy to carry for a farmer bringing to his farm besides of a mountain than to bring the mechanical pili nut cracker at here. It is more comparable to bring a one especially when you home is far from the place where your pili trees is planted. Also, from your farm you can sell your pili nuts at the price that you want and making the most of the benefits of it is in you because you’re brought pili are all kernels than if you brought pili with shells, after at home, you will de-shell it or you will sell it at a low price. The development of a C ashew Nut Cracking Device is posed similarities in part that the present study is also use a tray for the nuts are hold. They both use the impact force for the cracking of the shells of the nuts. But they differ on the method to make the nuts cracked. Instead of using hinged and spring-loaded mild steel cracking lid, the researchers using in their machine a weighted blocked that is hang on the pulleys. The cashew cracking device is having grooves to hold 25 nuts at a time while the pili de-shelling machine is fabricated a beehive-like tray to hold 17 pili nuts at a time. Cashew nuts get cracked by the impact of the lid against the feeding tray, however pili nuts get crack by the impact of the loosened weighted block at the upper blade which is have direct contact to the shell and the bounce back impact to the lower blade that is also with direct contact to the shell. In cashew cracking device, the lid provides for a minimum clearance from the feeding tray on which nuts are preloaded to prevent the applied force from being excess of the required cracking force. In pili de-shelling machine, it provides a stopper at the both side of the metal plate where the upper and lower blades are attached for it does not excess on the required cut deep needed. Cashew cracking device was tested with various cashew nut and placement orientations, throughout the pili nut will be test with various pili nut sizes but instead of placement orientation, another test is getting how much weight of the weighted block must be needed to crack all pili nuts in the beehive-like tray. Theoretical Framework This study anchored to the law of Isaac Newton, the Third Law of Newton’s Theory. It state that ‘for every action there is an equal and opposite re-action’. The researchers use this theory in respect on the process of cracking the pili shell. Because of being brittle of pili shell, the researchers themselves conclude that it needs only a little amount of force to crack the shell. In relevant with the theory, since the force is going down because of the blowing of the weighted bar, the researchers put a blade under the tray suite in every hole where pili are placed. If the weighted block is blow down it produce impact and the big pili will crack surely but for the small pili, the under blade is designed. For if the upper blade cannot reached the shell of the small pili, the impact of the block will help to crack the shell because it have a another blade under the tray. Pili Nuts Third Law of Newton’s Theory Or The Third Law of Motion Pili De-Shelling Machine Figure 1. Theoretical Paradigm Conceptual Framework The conceptual framework of this study was based on the system concept. A system consists of three elements, the input, the process and the output. The input, which is actually the load of the system, consists of all things that enter the system. In this study, the input refers to the pili nuts, which is the main objective of this study to be process and the machine if it is more efficient than to the existing. The process which study, the process refers to research method to be used. The tools in gathering data and procedures of interpretation are also written. The output will be the result of the study after analyzing the data related to the problem under study. The summary reports about the application of the propose principles, if it is more efficient or not to the existing. PROCESS Application of the propose principle to the machine to be actualize its process and gathering data to show if it is more efficient OUTPUT Efficient and economical pili de-shelling machine INPUT Pili de-shelling machine FEEDBACK Figure 2. Conceptual Paradigm Notes Francis T. Zee, Pili Nut. hort. purdue. edu/newcrop/cropfactsheets/pilinut. html, 2005 Richard A. Hamilton, Planting Pili Trees: An Economical Value for the Philippines. http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Pili_nut, 2008. Christmas B. De Guzman, Pili Nuts and It’s Uses, pinoybisnes. om/agri-business/pili-nuts-and-its-uses. July, 2010 Rita T. Dela Cruz and ARnulfo Malinis, Pili nut cracker goes high-tech. http://blog. agriculture. ph/pili-nut-cracker-goes-high-tech. html, March 03, 2009 S. J. Ojolo and B. S. Ogunsina, Development of a Cashew Nut Cracking Device, emeraldinsight. com/journals. htm? articleid=1876508show=html, Febraury,2009 Chapter 3 RESEARCH METHOD AND PROCEDURES This chapter presents the research methods a nd procedures that was utilized in the study. The step by step process of development was the highlight of this chapter. Also discussed was the scientific principles behind the development of the pili de-shelling machine. Methodology The researchers will be using experimental method on a basis of actual values of weight, dimensions or sizes of parts needed for constructing the machine. We will do some trials to test the weight of the block and even the velocity of the block distance per unit time of travel. The primary function of this test is to assure that the entire pili nut in the case will crack. The cracking ability of the machine will depend in the case, composes of two parts, the upper and the lower part. The lower part, there is a tray where the pili nut put in and the lower blade. The upper part has a cover to prevent the movement of the pili nut and where the upper blade attached. Other mechanisms that are part of the case are the stopper, the base, the poles and the upper brazed. In the pulling of the rope, the force you will exert is not too large. It is in the range of 8. 8 to 17. 6 lb more or less. It’s like you pulling a toy car weighing 4 to 8 kg. It is easy to pull because it have a wheels same as this machine. We connect pulley to resist the friction while in operation. With it comes to actual constructing of machine we will make it adjustable. For example, the weighted block can be adjustable by adding another weight to satisfy the required weights needed. The stopper is also adjustable by little-by-little subtracting a height to make get the appropriate height needed. Research Procedure The researchers use a questionnaire to gathered data to answer the problem whether the machine is gender friendly or not and to get the idea of the respondents for the specified improvements given by the researchers. The esearchers selected 10 farmers or sellers randomly who are active in pili farming or selling in Daet, Camarines Norte. The researchers use a time frame to make the research possible. But because of some conflictions to the other subjects of the researchers, they made more adjustments to their time frame. The researchers also use to pattern some of their paper works on the undergraduate thesis that are place at the school library. Assembly and Const ructions This part deals the procedure on how the machine works and operates. 1. The beehive-like tray Here, where pili nuts are place. Because of being like of the beehive holes, the pili is easily shoot and place when you droop it of your hands. 2. The amazing case Here, the upper and lower blades are located. In this part, the beehive-like tray with pili nuts is inserted between the two blades. The upper blade is adjustable for the variation of pili nuts height while the lower blade is fixed on the base. 3. The base, poles and the upper braze The poles are attached to the base at the lower part and the upper braze is on top of it. In the base, the lower blade of the amazing case is in fixed and the upper braze, where the pulley is in place. The poles signify for the approaching height of the weighted block when it drops. 4. The pulley and the rope The rope is attach to the weighted block while the pulley made the pulling of the rope easy for the weighted block goes to it’s initial position. 5. The weighted block It gives the biggest contribution on the machine. The force that can get from falling of it from its initial position serves as to push the upper blade and bounce back by the lower blade. That is why, the pili nuts inserted in between of it where nothing to go but to crack. Statistics Tools CHAPTER 4 Pili De-Shelling Machine For Small Scale Farmers This chapter present and interprets the data gathered by the researchers about getting the efficiency of the Pili De-Shelling Machine. The details are focused on calculating the cracking capacity, the kernel recovery and if the machine is gender friendly, including the economic viability of the machine in compare to the existing and improvements that can be adopted to enhance the machine efficiency. Preliminary test were carried out with dry-rousted pili nuts to determine the performance of the machine. Table 1 and 2 indicates on how to measure the said performance. By using the tables, it will help to give a scientific discussion on how to treat the data. I. The efficiency rate of pili de-shelling machine Table 1: Cracking Capacity Sample| Cracked nuts (pcs)| Time of Operation (s)| 1| | | 2| | | 3| | | 5| | | Mean| | | Table 2: Kernel Recovery Sample| Whole Kernel| Broken Kernel| 1| | | 2| | | 3| | | 5| | | Mean| | | Table 3: Gender Friendliness Respondents| Yes| No| 1| | | | | | 3| | | 5| | | 6| | | 7| | | 8| | | 9| | | 10| | | Mean| | | II. Economic Viability III. Possible Improvements CHAPTER 5 Summary, Findings, Conclusions and Recommendations Summary Removing pili kernel on its shell is one problem that farmers encounter in producing high quality of kernel. Manual operation using bolo is time consuming and sometimes it cannot guarantee to produce high quality kernel becaus e this method can damage essential parts of a kernel. As time goes by, there are many machines that have been invented in order to help people to make their work easier. There are even machines that were invented for pili shelling however, none of these have the quality of being economically friendly especially to the small-scale farmers who are working in the Philippines. This idea gives the researchers a motivation to develop a machine that can produce more and high quality pili kernel at low cost, easy to operate and practical for small-scale farmers and sellers. The machine that proposes by the researchers is based on the theory of Isaac Newton which is the law of motion. In this theory it says that every action has an equal and opposite reaction that’s why the researchers use a weighted block as the source of force so that it can crack the pili shell. The researchers was also designed the special tray that is suitable to sizes of pili which is ranging of 4 to 7 cm long, 2. 3 to 3. 8 cm in diameter. This special tray had also blade at the bottom and upper part so that it can assure to crack the pili shell when the weighted block was dropped. This machine also composed of other parts like rope, pulley and stopper. The purpose of pili de-shelling machine especially to the small scale farmers and sellers is to produce pili kernel without using fuel or electricity to operate the machine. As of now the world was suffering to the decreasing source of energy especially fuel, that’s why we need to think another solution to do the same work without consuming a fuel. Pili de-shelling machine was designed in order to help small scale farmers but also the world especially our nature to control the decreasing source of energy. This project aimed to help pili farmers and sellers in their de-shelling operation of pili nuts. The purpose of this study is to develop a pili de-shelling machine that can produce good quality pili kernels with easy operation, it could be economical and in a short period of time. The study was conducted to determine the efficiency and probably economic viability of the proposed fabricated pili de-shelling machine in comparison with other existing pili crackers and sighted some improvements for the machine. The researchers measured the property of pili de-shelling machine in terms of its cracking capacity, kernel recovery and if it was gender friendly. They compare the proposed machine to the existing pili crackers to determine its economic viability. Also, the researchers cited some improvements that could adopted to enhance the capability of the pili de-shelling machine. Findings I. II. III. Conclusions I. II. III. Recommendations I. II. III. IV. Additional Recommendations Curriculum Vitae Personal Data Name : Christian Jess A. Natan Nickname:Nathz Contact No. :09103842029 Address:Pob. I, Basud, Camarines Norte Date of Birth:December 22, 1990 Place of Birth:QMMC, Quezon City Father’s Name:Roberto E. Natan Mother’s Name:Jocelyn A. Natan Religion:Born Again Christian Educational Background Elementary:Mangcamagong Elem. School(S. Y. 2002-2003) Mangcamagong, Basud, Camarines Norte Secondary:Basud National High School(S. Y. 2006-2007) Basud, Camaries Norte Tertiary:Camarines Norte State College(S. Y. 2011-2012) Daet, Camarines Norte Course:Bachelor of Science in Mechanical Engineering Curriculum Vitae Personal Data Name :Edwin T. Bombales Nickname:Edz Contact No. :09463127539 Address:Brgy. Mangga, Sipocot, Camarines Norte Date of Birth:February 07, 1988 Place of Birth:Brgy. Mangga, Sipocot, Camarines Norte Father’s Name:Eduardo T. Bombales Mother’s Name:Beatriz T. Bombales Religion:Roman Catholic Educational Background Elementary:Mangga Elem. School(S. Y. 2000-2001) Brgy. Mangga, Sipocot, Camarines Norte Secondary:Barcelonita Fisheries School(S. Y. 2004-2005) Barcelonita, Cabusau, Camarines Sur Tertiary:Camarines Norte State College(S. Y. 2011-2012) Daet, Camarines Norte Course:Bachelor of Science in Mechanical Engineering Curriculum Vitae Personal Data Name :Karlo Jamie A. Ong Nickname:Kaloy Contact No. :09095699023 Address:p-3, Brgy. Calintaan, Talisay, Camarines Norte Date of Birth:February 12, 1991 Place of Birth:Brgy. 7, Daet, Camarines Norte Father’s Name:James S. Ong Mother’s Name:Rosemarie A. Ong Religion:Roman Catholic Educational Background Elementary:Talisay Elem. School(S. Y. 2000-2001) Talisay, Camarines Norte Secondary:D. Q. Liwag High School(S. Y. 2006-2007) Sto. Domingo, Vinzons, Camarines Norte Tertiary:Camarines Norte State College(S. Y. 2011-2012) Daet, Camarines Norte Course:Bachelor of Science in Mechanical Engineering

Monday, February 24, 2020

Education Trends, Theories, and Practices Annotated Bibliography

Education Trends, Theories, and Practices - Annotated Bibliography Example The increasing trend of assimilating technology within the field of education has led to various research on the subject. This paper addresses the various trends in instructional technology and discusses such critical aspect as the administrative support with regard to the use of technology in classrooms; various legislations and aids available to support and promote such use etc., among many others, which will help the policy makers in understanding the influence of technology in the field of education. The discussions presented by the authors will help the general readers in understanding the various trends introduced in the field of academics. The authors propose that interactive communication is likely to dramatically change the manner in which education is imparted, and that such futuristic trends in technology will soon drive out old and outdated modes of education such as the conventional blackboard and replace it with modern and state of the art technological aids such as int eractive whiteboards, PDAs, and other hand-held devises; as well as other instructional software. Internet has dramatically transformed the educational environment and the same has been discussed at length in this paper. The authors have addressed various issues with regard to trends in online education, the outcomes of learners', as well as various other administrative and institutional factors which play a key role within the education systems. The authors review have included comprehensive, descriptive as well as exploratory studies., which observed the trends of online students and made several major observations with regard to their learning outcomes. This paper helped in assessing the impact of online technology on education and its role in the future of academic studies. Alaxander, M., Perraault, H., Waldman, L., & Zhao, J. (2008). Comparing the Distance Learning-Related Course Development Approach and Faculty Support and Rewards Structure at AACSB Accredited Institutions bet ween 2001 and 2006. The Journal of Educators Online, 5(2), pp. 1-15 This research was conducted to study the impact of online education and the support provided to educators to use and integrate technology within the educational domain. This article would be most helpful for researchers, scholars, and teachers. For the purpose of this study, the researchers conducted various studies and observed the approaches used by business schools. The outcome indicated